Preparation, characterization and stability investigation of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with the Echis carinatus snake venom as a novel delivery system


1 Department of Venomous animals and Human Sera, Razi Vaccine & Sera Research Institute, Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran

3 Research and Development Department, Hakim pharmaceutical company, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


The chitosan nanoparticles used widely as a drug delivery systems recently. In the present study the Echis carinataus snake venom loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on ionic gelation of tripolyphosphate and chitosan. The nanoparticles physicochemical characteristics, stability and biological activity of encapsulated venom were studied. The particles were spherical in shape and the tripolyphosphoric groups of TPP were linked to the ammonium groups of chitosan. Optimum particle size of chitosan and venom loaded nanoparticles were 89 and 116 nm, respectively. Optimum loading capacity and loading efficiency obtained by 500 µg/ml concentration of venom. The biological activity of venom remained intact during nanoparticle formation and showed no considerable reduction in stability analysis. Our results suggested that Chitosan nanoparticles, which prepared in this work possibly, could be used as an alternative for traditional adjuvants.