Study the Ability of Salmonella typhimiurm to Induce Cytokine TNFα in Mice Treated with Olive Leaves Extract and Ciprofloxacin

Document Type : Original Articles


Al –Esraa College University, Baghdad, Iraq


TNF-α is a type of cytokine that is produced by inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells produce cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN- γ, IL-1, etc. Ciprofloxacin is the last drug of choice to clear the infection. Ciprofloxacin, a grace inhibitor, kills bacteria by inducing chromosome fragmentation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the bacterial cell. This study was designed to investigate the ability of Salmonella typhimiurm to induce TNF-α in cells. 30 NMRI mice from both genders were divided randomly into 3 groups (n=10) and treated as follows: The first group was intraperitoneally (I.P.) injected with a 0.1 ml/4×108 CFU/ ml bacterial suspension of S. typhimiurm as a positive control. The second group was injected (I.P.) with S. typhimiurm 0.1 ml (4×108 CFU/ml and then injected with 30 mg/kg/0.3 ml of CiprofloxacinCiprofloxacin intramuscular (I.M.). The olive leaf alcoholic extract was given to the third group through a gavage tube for two weeks before giving I/P 0.1 ml/4×108 CFU/ml S. typhimiurm. Afterward, they were post-treated with 30 mg/kg/0.3 ml of olive leaf extract orally by gavage tube until the end of the experiment (30 days). The recorded data from group 1 showed heavy deposition of TNF-α marker in the spleen and liver, and examination showed dark brown cellular components. Also, in the second group, the spleen and liver tissue sections showed heavy deposition of TNF-α marker; other sections showed moderated deposition of TNF-α marker. In the third group, TNF marker was found in small amounts or not in tissue samples from the spleen and liver. Histopathological examination of infected 1st group liver and spleen tissue sections shows lobular hepatic necrosis with mononuclear cells. Aggregation manifests as granuloma lesions, particularly lymphocytes in the portal area around the bile duct and blood vessels, with the proliferation of macrophages known as kupffer cells and depletion of white pulp in spleen tissue when compared to the second and third groups, which demonstrated moderated lesions in infected and treated mice. The results showed that olive leaf extract reduces the infection of Salmonella typhimiurm in the pre and post-treated groups better than CiprofloxacinCiprofloxacin.


Main Subjects

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