Tracing Some Salivary Immune Elements in Iraqi SARS-2 Patients

Document Type : Original Articles


1 College of Dentistry, Al-Muthanna University, Al-Muthanna, Iraq

2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq


Saliva is one of the most significant components in maintaining oral homeostasis and symbiosis. It contains antimicrobial proteins and peptides, such as mucins, lactoferrin, lysozyme, lactoperoxidase, Catherine, statins, and antibodies (secretory immunoglobin A [sIgA]). Early defenses against respiratory infections rely heavily on mucosal immunity, especially secretory sIgA, which has several features and functions that make it suitable for mucosal defense. Salivary testing has been utilized to define mucosal immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Lysozyme has muramidase, with antimicrobial activity, and high concentrations in body fluids, such as saliva and tear. This research aimed to offer an update on how saliva components suppress viral infection and sustain health. A total of 50 individuals, including 30 SARS-2 patients and 20 non-infected subjects, in the age range of 32-54 years were enrolled in this study. Saliva specimens were obtained from polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and non-infected participants. To collect saliva, the subjects were advised to swirl water over their lips three times, and 5.0 ml of saliva was collected. Samples were centrifuged at 800 x g for 10 min. Saliva was diluted at 1:2,000 with 1 × Diluent N. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) titer in saliva was detected. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the solution's change in absorbance at 550 nm. Measurements (salivary IgA and lysozyme) were made after 7, 30, and 60 days of confirmatory PCR COVID-19 test. The mean scores of salivary IgA levels were obtained at 17.85, 15.26, and 10.73 mg/dl in patients and 9.53, 10.33, and 9.21 mg/dl in healthy individuals after 7, 30, and 60 days, respectively. The salivary lysozyme activity levels in SARS-2 patients compared to controls were 9.7, 7.3, and 4.2 mg/dl versus 2.9, 3.4, and 3.77 mg/dl, respectively. The salivary IgA level was significantly higher in patients of a confirmatory test for COVID-19 compared to healthy individuals.


Main Subjects

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