Extra-Gastroduodenal Manifestation and Helicobacter pylori Infection

Document Type : Original Articles


1 Northern Technical University, Kirkuk Technical Institute, Kirkuk, Iraq

2 Tikrit University, College of Medicine, Tikrit, Iraq

3 Kirkuk University, College of Medicine, Kirkuk, Iraq


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) which are known as Gram-negative bacteria tend to selectively colonize in the gastric epithelium. The infiltration of neutrophilic and mononuclear cells in the antrum and corpus mucosa is one of the consequences of acute and chronic gastritis colonization with H. pylori. This chronic active gastritis is the primary condition related to H. pylori colonization, and other H. pylori-associated disorders result from this chronic inflammatory process. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between H. pylori infection and extra-gastroduodenal manifestations, such as iron deficiency anemia, chronic spontaneous urticarial, diabetes mellitus, and celiac diseases with low ferritin levels. There were 235 subjects aged 3-75 years in the patient's group. The selected eligible patients were subjected to examination by non-invasive methods using stool antigen test and 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT). The H. pylori antigen rapid test cassette (feces) was used for the qualitative detection of H. pylori antigens in human feces specimens. In the present study, 183 (71.8%) patients demonstrated positive results for H. pylori which had been detected by stool antigen test, out of whom 106 (57.9%) and 77 (42.1%) cases were female and male, respectively. The recorded data pointed out that the rates of Iron deficiency anemia, diabetes mellitus, and celiac diseases were 92(50.3%), 62 (33.9%), and 25 (13.7%), respectively. The findings of the present study revealed that H.pylori is more prevalent in females. Moreover, the diagnostic potential of the 14C UBT method was higher and more accurate than the stool antigen assay.


Main Subjects

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