Document Type : Original Articles
Department of Medical Basic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Wasit University, Wasit, Iraq
Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Wasit University, Wasit, Iraq
Department of Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Wasit University, Wasit, Iraq
Natural toxins have been traditionally used to trigger several diseases among which bee venom (HBV) is of great importance. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of honeybee venom (HBV) on alloxan and glucose fluid-induced Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, a total of 20 adult laboratory male mice (Mus musculus) were selected, acclimated, and divided into four equal groups (n=5). Initially, 15 mice were fasted for 12 hrs and injected with alloxan at a single dose of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The animals were exposed to drinking glucose fluid in the morning for 4 days. Then, the blood glucose was measured. The studied animals having blood glucose of £200 mg/dl were considered non-diabetic and re-subjected to injecting alloxan (150 mg/kg body weight) and drinking glucose fluid for another 4 days. Four groups of mice population included, Group 1: non-diabetic and untreated with HBV, Group 2: diabetic and received no HBV as the potential therapeutic agent, Group 3: diabetic and received a low level of HBV at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, Group 4: diabetic and received a high level of HBV at a dose of 1 mg/kg. At the end of the 35-day testing period, blood samples were tested to determine the levels of insulin, glucose, and lipid profiles [cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] using Sandwich ELISA kits. The results indicated a significant increase in blood glucose in the diabetic group compared to that of the control one, while both concentrations of HBV significantly reduced the level of blood glucose compared to that of the diabetic group. Furthermore, the level of insulin was significantly decreased in the diabetic group compared to that of the controls, while HBV significantly increased the level of insulin compared to that of the diabetic group. Moreover, the diabetic mice demonstrated a significant increase in the concentration of cholesterol and TG compared to that of control mice which were significantly reversed in response to HBV treatment. The level of HDL was significantly decreased in the diabetic group compared to that of the control group which was modulated by treatment, while no significant differences were seen between all the studied groups regarding the level of LDL. Histological examination of diabetic mice revealed a significant alteration in acinar cells and destruction of b-cells of pancreatic sections with marked lacerations in the liver extended to all structures of the organ. The present study concluded that HBV could be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent and manage diabetes and its complication.