Evaluation of the Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Laurus Nobilis Leaves on Blood Biochemical Parameters and Histological Changes in the Liver and Kidney among Female Wistar Rats Treated with Depakene (Sodium Valproate)

Document Type : Original Articles


1 University of Kufa, Faculty of Education for Girls, Department of Biology, Kufa, Iraq

2 University of Kufa, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Kufa, Iraq

3 The Islamic University, College of Medical Technology, Medical Laboratory


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Laurus Nobilis (Bay leaves) alcoholic extract on glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea levels; moreover, it was attempted to examine the histological changes induced in the liver and kidney among female albino rats treated with Depakene (Sodium Valproate). The L. nobilis leaves were dried in the shade, and they were then ground in mechanical processing. The resulting substance (250 gm) was processed in 70% ethanol for 24 h using a Soxhlet extractor at 45°C. Before being measured, the extract was concentrated in vacuo and stored in a vacuum desiccator until the elimination of all the solvents. In total, 20 female adult Wistar rats (230-250 g) were bred in the Animal House Lab at the University of Kufa, Faculty of Education for Girls, Kufa, Iraq. These animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=5), housed in a typical laboratory setting, and given a standard diet and water. Each animal received the treatments intraperitoneally for 30 days. The experimental groups were designed as follows: group 1 (the control) was given only physiological saline solution; group 2 received alcoholic extract of L. nobilis leaves at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW; group 3 received Depakene (Sodium Valproate) at a dose of 500 mg/kg BW; and group 4 received alcoholic extract+Depakene at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW and 500 mg/kg BW. The animals were euthanized following anaesthesia 24 h after the last day of the experiment. Heart blood samples were gathered in gel tubes, the serum was then centrifuged for 15 min at 3000 rpm to measure the biochemical parameter levels, which included glucose, HbA1C, ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea. The liver and kidney organs were removed and placed in a 10% formaldehyde solution instantly. Following fixation, they were processed as usual before being embedded in paraffin for histological analysis. Morphological changes were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. The recorded data showed a major drop (P<0.05) in blood glucose and HbA1c levels in group 2 which was given ethanol extract, compared to the other groups. Interestingly, the level of blood glucose and HbA1c levels reduced significantly in group 4, which was given L. nobilis+Depakene, compared to the control and the animals treated with only Depakene. Moreover, the results showed a major rise (P<0.05) in the liver enzyme among the animals treated with Depakene, compared to other groups. On the other hand, the recorded data showed a substantial drop (P<0.05) in creatinine levels in the animals treated with L. nobilis leaves extract (group 2) and group 4, compared to group 3 and the control group, respectively. However, no changes were recorded in the case of urea levels among the groups. Finally, the findings of this study showed that the ethanol extract of L. nobilis leaves was effectively reduced the adverse effects of Depakene. On the other hand, it had a significant effect on the reduction of blood glucose.


Main Subjects

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