Use of Bentofeed and Persian Melon Peel Biochar in Decolorization of Water Contaminated with Methylene Blue and Their Effects on In vitro Ruminal Fermentation

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Animal Science, University of Torbat-e Jam, Torbat-e Jam, Iran

2 Research Center of Special Domestic Animals, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

Abstract

Two experiments were done to evaluate the effects of two cheap adsorbents including bentofeed (a commercial name of bentonite) and Persian melon peel biochar (PMPB) on decolorization of water contaminated by methylene blue (MB) and ruminal fermentation pattern. The decolorization efficiency of bentofeed and PMPB at three levels of 0, 4 and 8 mg per 10 ml of 0, 3, 6, and 9 mg/L MB solutions mg/L after 3 and 24 h of incubation was evaluated by its absorbance at 660 nm. At all dye concentrations, PMPB and bentofeed showed a high potential in removing MB from water with an efficiency of 60-99.5%. In both incubation times, addition of 8 mg bentofeed had the highest effect on removal efficiency when dye concentration was 6, or 9 mg/L. However, removal efficiency was declined with increasing MB concentration (P<0.05). In experiment 2, the effects of various levels (same as experiment 1) of MB, bentofeed and PMPB on in vitro gas production (GP) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were assessed in two individual 4×3 factorial experiments. The potential gas production (b), rate constant of gas production (c), metabolizable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD), and total VFA significantly decreased with increasing MB in the medium (P<0.05), while all parameters were increased when bentofeed or PMPB was added to the medium containing MB (P<0.05). The amounts of acetic, propionic and butyric acids were not affected by PMPB, but changed when bentofeed was added to the medium (P<0.05). The NH3-N concentration decreased significantly following the increase of MB and increased when PMPB and bentofeed was added to the medium. MB, as a water contaminant agent, had negative effects on ruminal fermentation parameters. Both adsorbents; PMPB and specially bentofeed, were efficiently able to remove MB from the water. The negative effects of MB on fermentation parameters were also alleviated as a result of using bentofeed or PMPB. It seems that bentofeed has the higher adsorption property of MB than that of the PMPB.

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