Outbreak Investigation of Officially Reported and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N8 Subtype) in Iran During 2016

Document Type : Original Articles


1 Department of Poultry Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Health and Management of Poultry Diseases, Iranian Veterinary Organization, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran


On 14 November 2016, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPA) was reported from a commercial layer farm located in Malard, Tehran Province, Iran. This study aimed to investigate the HPAI H5N8 outbreaks in Iran. The questionnaire was prepared and completed through interviews with farm owners or field observations at the time of disease onset from November 2016 to February 2017. The HPAI H5N8 infection was confirmed in 30 different locations including 10 villages (33.3%), nine-layer farms (33%), two broiler breeder farms (6.67%), one layer breeder farm (3.3%), one turkey farm (3.3%), one partridge farm (3.3%), five national parks (16.7%), and one wetland (3.3%) in 12 provinces of Iran. The cumulative incidence rates of disease in villages, layer farms, broiler breeder farms, layer breeder farms, partridge farms, and turkey farms were 0.02%, 0.87%, 0.55%, 6.25%, 7.14%, and 0.69%, respectively. The findings reflect that among the investigated variables at infected locations, new birds entering the home in villages, live bird markets, inappropriate biosecurity conditions, transporting manure during the breeding period, close proximity of a common road to infected farms, and poultry movement inside (pullet) and outside were the most frequently observed possible risk factors for these outbreaks. In conclusion, attention should be focused on the study of the dynamics and movements of domestic poultry, investigation and modification of the structure of industrial poultry farms, training for all related people, enhancement of passive surveillance, an increase in biosecurity, raising the awareness of the authorities on the importance of the infection, and provision of the required credits and facilities.


Article Title [French]

Enquête sur la Flambée de Grippe Aviaire (Sous-Type H5N8) Officiellement Signalée et Hautement Pathogène en Iran en 2016

Abstract [French]

Le 14 novembre 2016, une flambée de grippe aviaire hautement pathogène (HPA) a été signalée dans une ferme d'élevage commerciale située à Malard, dans la province de Téhéran, en Iran. Cette étude visait à enquêter sur les flambées de grippe aviaire H5N8 en Iran. Le questionnaire a été préparé et complété par le biais d'entretiens avec les propriétaires de fermes ou d'observations sur le terrain au moment de l'apparition de la maladie de novembre 2016 à février 2017. L'infection HPAI H5N8 a été confirmée dans 30 sites différents, dont 10 villages (33,3%), neuf ferme de pondeuses (33%), deux fermes d'élevage de poulets de chair (6,67%), une ferme d'élevage de poulets de chair (3,3%), une ferme de dinde (3,3%), une ferme de perdrix (3,3%), cinq parcs nationaux (16,7%) et une zone humide (3,3%) dans 12 provinces d'Iran. Taux d'incidence cumulée de la maladie dans les villages, les fermes de ponte, les fermes d'élevage de poulets de chair, les fermes d'élevage de pondeuses, les fermes de perdrix et les fermes de dinde étaient respectivement de 0.02%, 0.87%, 0.55%, 6.25%, 7.14% et 0.69%. Les résultats montrent que parmi les variables étudiées dans les sites infectés, les nouveaux oiseaux entrant dans la maison dans les villages, les marchés d'oiseaux vivants, les conditions de biosécurité inappropriées, le transport du fumier pendant la période de reproduction, la proximité d'une route commune menant aux fermes infectées et le mouvement des volailles à l'intérieur (poulette) et à l'extérieur ont été les facteurs de risque possibles les plus fréquemment observés pour ces flambées. En conclusion, il convient de se concentrer sur l'étude de la dynamique et des mouvements des volailles domestiques, l'investigation et la modification de la structure des élevages industriels de volailles, la formation pour tous personnes apparentées, renforcement de la surveillance passive, augmentation de la biosécurité, sensibilisation des autorités à l'importance de l'infection et fourniture des crédits et des installations nécessaires.

Keywords [French]

  • HPAI H5N8
  • Iran
  • enquête sur l'épidémie
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