Usefulness of Chitosan nanoparticles in preparation of the pentavalent clostridial toxoid vaccine, a focused study on clinical pathology elements and immunological responses

Document Type: Original Articles


1 Mashhad Branch, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of clinical pathology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Toxoid vaccines can provide protective immunity against clostridial diseases. As the short immunogenic level of toxoid vaccines, they should have been accompanied with an adjuvant. Nanoparticles of chitosan can improve humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.
In the present study, chitosan nanoparticles effect was investigated on immunization of the C. perfringens type D, C, B, C. novyi and C. septicum in pentavalent clostridial toxoid vaccination. Rabbits were immunized by two injections with three-week intervals and two weeks after the last injection, checked clinically and in the autopsy. Haematological changes were investigated during immunization including white blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume(PCV), platelet (Plt), neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, basophile, monocyte, and Neut/Lymph. Biochemical factors were also measured include creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, and albumin. Changes in immune responses during the immunization period was investigated by Indirect ELISA.
Elisa results showed that chitosan induced more significant immunogenicity when accompanied with toxoid vaccine. Chitosan could raise the immunity of the vaccine significantly. The haematological and biochemical factors had no significant pathologic changes during immunization in control and vaccinated groups (P<0.05). The finding suggests that the toxoid vaccines do not significantly alter in physiology. Chitosan could increase 2-3 times more antibody production than the non-chitosan vaccine. The humoral immune response significantly duplicated due to chitosan effect. Chitosan, not only had no local or general side effects but also had good help in stimulating the immune system and can be considered as a safe perfect adjuvant.