Molecular Detection of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Viruses in Live Bird Markets, Gilan Province

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Poultry Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Coronaviruses (AvCoV) which include infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and other bird coronaviruses belong to the genus gammacoronavirus, subfamily Coronavirinae. One of the most prominent representatives of gammacoronavirus genus is infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) which is a highly contagious viral pathogen of chickens causing considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. IBVs mostly affect the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts leading to a substantial drop in production. Backyard poultry in the villages usually share their food and water with free flight birds which puts them at serious risk of disease transmission. Furthermore, the poor hygienic measurements which are often used in backyard flocks make them a potential reservoir for diseases that can be transferred to commercial poultry flocks. Live bird markets (LBMs) which receive live poultry to be resold or slaughtered and sold onsite play a significant role in spreading infectious diseases among the different bird species. In the present study, a number of 354 cloacal swab samples were collected from different bird species from LBMs of Gilan province. Subsequently, after RNA extraction, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was carried out using specific primers of S1 gene to detect coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. Two samples from backyard chickens were reported to be positive to coronavirus which were named Iran/Backyardchicken96/2017 and Iran/Backyardchicken94/2017. The results of the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these two isolates are placed in QX and IS-1494 strains, respectively. On a final note, the obtained results highlighted the role of live birds offered in LBMs in the epidemiology of IBV and the transmission of the virus to the industrial flock.

Keywords


Article Title [French]

Détection Moléculaire des Virus de la Bronchite Infectieuse Aviaire dans les Marchés d'Oiseaux Vivants de la Province de Gilan

Abstract [French]

Les coronavirus (AvCoV), qui incluent le virus de la bronchite infectieuse (VBI) et d'autres coronavirus d'oiseaux, appartiennent au genre gammacoronavirus et à la sous-famille des Coronavirinae. L'un des représentants les plus éminents du genre des gammacoronavirus est le virus de la bronchite infectieuse (VBI),un pathogène viral hautement contagieux touchant les poulets, causant des pertes économiques considérables à l'industrie aviaire . Les VBIs affectent principalement les voies respiratoires, urinaires et reproductives, entraînant une baisse substantielle de la production. Dans les villages, les volailles de basse-cour partagent généralement leur nourriture et leur eau avec des oiseaux en liberté, ce qui les expose à un risque sérieux de transmission de maladies. En outre, les mauvaises mesures sanitaires, courantes dans les troupeaux de basse-cour, en font des réservoirs potentiels pour des maladies transmissibles aux volailles commerciales. Les marchés d'oiseaux vivants (MOVs) qui reçoivent des volailles vivantes à revendre ou à abattre jouent un rôle important dans la propagation des maladies infectieuses parmi les différentes espèces d'oiseaux. Dans cette étude, un total de 354 échantillons d'écouvillons cloacaux a été prélevé sur différentes espèces d'oiseaux des MOVs de la province de Gilan. Après l’extraction de l'ARN, la technique d’amplification en chaîne par polymérase, couplée à une transcription inverse (RT-PCR) a été réalisée en utilisant des amorces spécifiques du gène S1 pour détecter le VBI . Deux échantillons de poulets de basse-cour se sont avérés positifs pour le coronavirus, nommés Iran/Poulets de Basse-Cour96/2017 et Iran/Poulets de Basse-Cour96/2014. Les résultats de l'analyse phylogénétique ont démontré que ces deux isolats sont placés dans des souches QX et IS-1494, respectivement. Sur une note finale, les résultats obtenus ont mis en évidence le rôle des oiseaux vivants à la vente dans les MOVs dans l'épidémiologie du VBI et la transmission du virus aux troupeaux industriels.

Keywords [French]

  • Bronchite infectieuse aviaire
  • Analyse phylogénétique
  • Volailles de Basse-cour
  • marché aux oiseaux vivants
  • province de Gilan
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