Molecular Monitoring of D1466 Genotype of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus in Iran: A Retrospective Study in 2013-2017

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Iranian Veterinary Organization, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Poultry Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

4 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Infectious bronchitis is one of the most common diseases in the poultry industry in many countries, especially in the regions with a dense poultry farming industry. Gammacoronavirus is the etiologic agent of this disease, with the chickens and poultries as the natural reservoirs of the virus. Various strains of infectious bronchitis virus have been reported in poultry around the world. In terms of pathogenicity, this virus can induce a spectrum of diseases ranging from the moderate respiratory tract to kidney and reproductive diseases. The serotypes of this virus do not cause cross-immunity against each other. This issue makes it difficult to control the disease. Based on the analysis of the highly variable region of the glycoprotein S1 gene, the isolated strains in Iran were classified into seven different phylogenetic groups, including Massachusetts, QX, IS-720, IS-1494, 793/B, IR-1, and IR-2. The D1466 genotype has not been reported in the country; however, the killed vaccine is used in broiler breeder farms. In this study, tissue specimens were collected from 700 farms (i.e., broiler, egg-laying, and broiler breeder farms) suspected of infectious bronchitis within 2013-2017. The samples were examined using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The D1466 genotype was not detected in any of the studied specimens. Due to the lack of immunity of the D1466 serotype against the dominant types in the country, one has to be careful in choosing the right vaccine. It is necessary to perform continuous monitoring of the circulation status of the various serotypes of viruses in the country to identify the dominant and possible new serotypes for the utilization of the appropriate vaccine.

Keywords


Article Title [French]

Surveillance Moléculaire du Génotype D1466 du Virus de la Bronchite Infectieuse Aviaire en Iran: une Étude Rétrospective en 2013-2017

Abstract [French]

La bronchite infectieuse est l'une des maladies les plus courantes dans l'industrie de la volaille dans de nombreux pays, en particulier dans les régions où l'industrie de l'élevage de volaille est dense. Le gammacoronavirus est l'agent étiologique de cette maladie, les poulets et les volailles étant les réservoirs naturels du virus. Diverses souches de virus de la bronchite infectieuse ont été signalées chez les volailles du monde entier. En termes de pathogénicité, ce virus peut induire un spectre de maladies allant des voies respiratoires modérées aux maladies rénales et reproductives. Les sérotypes de ce virus ne provoquent pas d'immunité croisée les uns contre les autres. Ce problème rend difficile le contrôle de la maladie. Sur la base de l'analyse de la région hautement variable du gène de la glycoprotéine S1, les souches isolées en Iran ont été classées en sept groupes phylogénétiques différents, dont le Massachusetts, QX, IS-720, IS-1494, 793/B, IR-1, et IR-2. Le génotype D1466 n'a pas été signalé dans le pays; cependant, le virus inactivé est utilisé dans les fermes d'élevage de poulets de chair. Dans cette étude, des échantillons de tissus ont été prélevés de 700 fermes (c.-à-d. les Fermes d'élevage de poulets de chair, de poules pondeuses, et de poulets reproducteurs) soupçonnées de bronchite infectieuse en 2013-2017. Les échantillons ont été examinés en utilisant une transcription inverse - réaction en chaîne par polymérase (TI-RCP) en temps réel. Le génotype D1466 n'a été détecté dans aucun des échantillons étudiés. En raison du manque d'immunité du sérotype D1466 contre les types dominants dans le pays, il faut être prudent dans le choix du bon vaccin. Il est nécessaire d'effectuer une surveillance continue de l'état de circulation des différents sérotypes de virus dans le pays pour identifier les nouveaux sérotypes dominants et possibles pour l'utilisation du vaccin approprié.

Keywords [French]

  • Bronchite infectieuse D1466
  • Fermes commerciales
  • TI-RCP en temps réel
  • Iran
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