Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Live Infectious Bronchitis 793/B.08IR Vaccine in SPF Chickens

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

Department of production of Infectious Bronchitis and Encephalomyelytis Vaccines, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has a variety of serotypes with relatively limited cross-protection leading the disease to be a major problem in the poultry industry. The IBV 793/B strain has identified to circulate in Iran; therefore, the development of a specific vaccine to protect against the virulent virus has received attention. In this regard, the live IB 793/B vaccine (793/B.08IR) was developed in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. In this study, the immunogenicity of 793/B.08IR vaccine via different routes of vaccination and efficacy of the vaccine were determined in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Three treatment groups of 10 SPF chickens received the vaccine via eye drops, spray, and drinking water. The sera were collected from the chicks at 3 and 6 weeks after the vaccination, and IBV specific antibody was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and serum neutralization (SN) test. To evaluate 793/B.08IR vaccine efficacy, 10 SPF chickens were vaccinated using eye drops. Moreover, 10 unvaccinated chickens were separately retained as negative controls. The birds were challenged with the virulent virus 3 weeks following the vaccination. Five days after the challenge, the tracheal swab was taken for virus reisolation. In the immunogenicity test, the ELISA titers of three vaccinated groups were significantly higher than the background values obtained in the control group (p<0.0001). The mean value of ELISA titer in the spray vaccinated group was higher than the spray and drinking water vaccinated groups 3 weeks following the vaccination; however, the difference was not statistically significant. No differences were observed in antibody titers among the three vaccinated groups 6 weeks after the vaccination. The results of the SN test confirmed the data obtained from the ELISA. The results of antibody titer and its increasing trend in chickens showed that 793/B.08IR vaccine induce proper immunity against the virus. In the efficacy test, IBV was isolated from 90% of the unvaccinated controls and 10% of vaccinated groups. The results of the recovery of the virus after the challenge showed that 793/B.08IR vaccine can provide a significantly improved protection against the pathogen in SPF vaccinated chickens.

Keywords


Article Title [French]

Immunogenicité et Efficacitée du Vaccin Vivant Contre la Bronchite Infectieuse 793/B.08ir chez des Poulets SPF

Abstract [French]

Le virus de la bronchite infectieuse aviaire (VBI) a une variété de sérotypes avec une protection croisée relativement limitée responsable de problèmes majeurs pour l'industrie aviaire. La souche de VBI 793/B s’est propagée en Iran; il est donc nécessaire de développer un vaccin spécifique pour se protéger contre ce virus virulent. Le vaccin vivant BI 793/B (793/B.08IR) a été développé par l'institut Razi en Iran. Dans cette étude, l'immunogénicité du vaccin 793/B.08IR a été évaluée par différentes voies de vaccination et l'efficacité du vaccin a été déterminée chez des poulets exempts d'agents pathogènes spécifiques (SPF). Trois groupes de traitement de 10 poulets SPF ont reçu le vaccin par voie oculaire (gouttes dans l'œil), par pulvérisation (spray) ou par l'eau potable. Les sérums ont été prélevés sur les poussins âgés de 3 et 6 semaines après la vaccination. L'anticorps spécifique de l'VBI a été mesuré en utilisant le test de neutralisation du sérum (SNT) et le dosage immuno-enzimatique (ELISA). Au total, 10 poulets SPF ont été vaccinés par voie oculaire pour évaluer l'efficacité du vaccin 793/B.08IR. De plus, 10 poulets non vaccinés ont été conservés séparément comme témoins négatifs. Les oiseaux ont été exposés au virus virulent 3 semaines après la vaccination. Cinq jours aprèsl’exposition au virus, des échantillons d'écouvillons trachéaux ont été prélevés pour l’isolation des virus. Selon les résultats du test d'immunogénicité, les titres ELISA de trois groupes vaccinés étaient significativement plus élevés que les valeurs de fond obtenues dans le groupe témoin (P<0.0001). La valeur moyenne du titre ELISA dans le groupe vacciné par pulvérisation était supérieure à celle des groupes vaccinés par pulvérisation et de l'eau potable 3 semaines après la vaccination; cependant, la différence n'était pas statistiquement significative. Aucune différence n'a été observée parmi les trois groupes vaccinés en termes de les titres d'anticorps 6 semaines après la vaccination. Les résultats du SNT ont confirmé les données obtenues à partir de l'ELISA. Les résultats du titre en anticorps et sa tendance croissante chez des poulets ont montré que le vaccin 793/B.08IR induisait une immunité appropriée contre le virus. Dans le test d'efficacité, l'VBI a été isolé à partir de 90% des témoins non vaccinés et de 10% des groupes vaccinés. Les résultats des tests d’isolationdu virus après l'exposition, ont montré que le vaccin 793/B.08IR pouvait fournir une amélioration significative de la protection contre cette agent pathogène chez des poulets SPF.

Keywords [French]

  • Vaccin VBI
  • souche 793/B
  • Immunogénicité
  • Efficacité
  • SPF
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