Efficacy of Thermostable Newcastle Disease Virus Strain I-2 in Broiler Chickens Challenged with Highly Virulent Newcastle Virus

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of Animal Sciences, Agricultural and Natural Resources College, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr, Iran

2 Avian Diseases Research Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Newcastle disease (ND) is a major threat to poultry industry production throughout developing countries. The Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) infecting industrialized and indigenous poultry in Iran are velogenic strains and responsible for the frequent outbreaks of ND in poultry farms even in vaccinated flocks causing serious economic losses in the commercial and indigenous poultry. However, vaccination is the only way to protect against endemic ND, and the conventional vaccines are not heat stable and consequently require complex cold-chains to be transferred to users leading to not much resistance. The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of thermostable NDV strain I-2 in broiler chickens vaccinated via drinking water and coated on oiled wheat grain. The horizontal transmission of I-2 strain and transmission of disease from vaccinated to unvaccinated chickens were also evaluated in this study. The obtained results showed that both routes of administration, following primary and/or secondary dose, provoked the production of necessary antibody titer and adequate protective immunity in broiler chickens. Moreover, the horizontal transmission of I-2 strain from vaccinated to unvaccinated chickens housed together induced an antibody response and protected unvaccinated chickens against a local field isolate of a virulent strain of NDV (The intravenous pathogenicity index 2.46, mean death time 59 h). Nevertheless, all unvaccinated and Newcastle challenged broilers chickens against the NDV died in this study. It is noteworthy that the transmission of the virus from challenged broiler chickens was very low to induce clinical signs in susceptible chickens. The obtained results of this study revealed the efficacy of NDV strain I-2 coated on the oiled wheat and via drinking water as it protects broiler chickens from highly virulent NDV.

Keywords


Article Title [French]

Efficacité de la Souche Thermostable du Virus de la Maladie de Newcastle I-2 chez des Poulets de Chair Contaminés par le Virus de Newcastle Hautement Virulent

Abstract [French]

La maladie de Newcastle (ND) constitue une menace majeure pour la production industrielle de volaille dans les pays en développement. Les virus de la maladie de Newcastle (NDV) qui infectent les volailles industrialisées et indigènes en Iran sont des souches vélogènes. De plus, ils sont responsables de fréquentes épidémies de ND dans les élevages de volailles même dans le cas des troupeaux vaccinés et ils provoquent de graves pertes économiques dans la volaille commerciale et indigène. Par conséquent, la vaccination est le seul moyen de contrôler la ND endémique. Cependant, les vaccins conventionnels ne sont pas stables à des températures élevées et nécessitent que les chaînes du froid complexes soient transférées aux utilisateurs, ce qui entraîne peu de résistance. La présente étude visait à évaluer l'efficacité de la souche thermostable NDV I-2 chez des poulets de chair vaccinés via de l'eau potable et nourris avec du grain de blé enrobé d'huile. La transmission horizontale de la souche I-2 et la transmission de maladies des poulets vaccinés aux poulets non vaccinés ont également été évaluées dans cette étude. Les résultats de cette étude ont montré que les deux méthodes d'administration du vaccin produisaient les titres d'anticorps nécessaires et une immunité protectrice adéquate à la première dose et après la deuxième vaccination. De plus, la transmission du virus vaccinal du poulet de chair vacciné au poulet de chair non vacciné a provoqué la production d'anticorps et une protection contre NDV (IVPI 2.46, MDT 59h) chez le poulet de chair non vacciné. Cependant, tous les poulets de chair non vaccinés et contaminés par Newcastle sont morts dans cette étude. Il est à noter que la transmission du virus à partir de poulets de chair contaminés était très faible et n’induisait pas des signes cliniques chez les poulets les plus sensibles. Les résultats de cette étude ont révélé l'efficacité de l’administration via l'eau potable de la souche NDV I-2 enrobée de blé huilé, conférant ainsi une protection contre le NDV hautement virulent chez les poulets de chair.

Keywords [French]

  • Maladie de newcastle
  • Souche thermostable
  • Souche I-2
  • Poulet de chair
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