Characterization and Pattern of Culling in Goats

Document Type : Short Communication


1 Faculty of Agriculture Sarayan, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University

3 Department of Animal Science, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran

4 Department of Research, Breeding and Production of Laboratory Animals, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran


In order to describe the proportion and pattern of culling in commercial goatherds, this survey was carried out in an industrialized goatherd in Torbat-e-Jam, Iran, over a period of 18 years from 1996 to 2013. In total, the data of 3945 goats were used in this study. Finally, out of all samples, 499 (12%) goats were culled. The involuntary culling was performed mainly due to shortage disorders (3.8%), viral disorders (3.3%), microbial diseases (2.8%), and other disorders (2.1%). Sheep pox was the most important reason (64%) for culling due to viral disorders. Tick paralysis was the most common parasitic disease that contributed to culling and responsible for 88% of parasitic disorders. On the other hand, enterotoxemia accounted for 55% of microbial disorders is considered the most common cause of culling. The high proportion of culling due to shortage disorders, especially nutritional deficiencies should be considered the most important cause of culling. It requires precautionary measures and planning in order to reduce the aforementioned rate. 


Main Subjects

Article Title [French]

Caractérisation et Modèle de Réforme (abattage) chez les Chèvres

Abstract [French]

Afin de décrire la proportion et le modèle de l'abattage chez les chèvres commerciales, cette enquête a été menée sur une période de 18 ans, de 1996 à 2013, dans un chevrier industrialisé. Au total, les données de 3945 chèvres ont été utilisées dans cette étude. Dans l'ensemble, 499 (12%) chèvres ont été abattues. L’abattage involontaire était principalement dû à des troubles de pénurie (3,8%), à des troubles viraux (3,3%), à une maladie microbienne (2,8%) et à d’autres troubles (2,1%). En raison de pénuries, les désordres ont représenté 30% des dispositions des chèvres abattues. La variole ovine était la principale raison (64%) de l'abattage en raison de troubles viraux. La paralysie due aux tiques était la maladie parasitaire la plus courante ayant contribué à l'abattage. En moyenne, elle était responsable de 88% des troubles parasitaires. En revanche, l'entérotoxémie représentait 55% des troubles microbiens. La forte proportion de réforme due à des problèmes de pénurie, en particulier de carences nutritionnelles, doit être considérée comme une perte économique importante et des mesures de précaution sont nécessaires pour réduire cette perte.

Keywords [French]

  • Abattage
  • Troupeaux de chèvres
  • Maladie microbienne
  • Maladie virale
Allaire, F.R., Sterwerf, H.E., Ludwick, T.M., 1977. Variations in Removal Reasons and Culling Rates with Age for Dairy Females1. J Dairy Sci 60, 254-267.
Azizzadeh, M., 2011. Characterisation and pattern of culling in Holstein-Friesian dairy herds in Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast of Iran. Vet ResForum 2, 254-258.
Beaudeau, F., Ducrocq, V., Fourichon, C., Seegers, H., 1995. Effect of disease on length of productive life of French Holstein dairy cows assessed by survival analysis. J Dairy Sci 78, 103-117.
Beaudeau, F., Henken, A., Fourichon, C., Frankena, K., Seegers, H., 1993. Associations between health disorders and culling of dairy cows: a review. Livest Prod Sci 35, 213-236.
Cobo-Abreu, R., Martin, S.W., Stone, J.B., Willoughby, R.A., 1979. The rates and patterns of survivorship and disease in a university dairy herd. Can Vet J 20, 177-183.
Detilleux, J.C., Grohn, Y.T., Eicker, S.W., Quaas, R.L., 1997. Effects of left displaced abomasum on test day milk yields of Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 80, 121-126.
Erb, H.N., Smith, R.D., Oltenacu, P.A., Guard, C.L., Hillman, R.B., Powers, P.A., et al., 1985. Path model of reproductive disorders and performance, milk fever, mastitis, milk yield, and culling in Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 68, 3337-3349.
Grohn, Y.T., Ducrocq, V., Hertl, J.A., 1997. Modeling the effect of a disease on culling: an illustration of the use of time-dependent covariates for survival analysis. J Dairy Sci 80, 1755-1766.
Grohn, Y.T., Eicker, S.W., Ducrocq, V., Hertl, J.A., 1998. Effect of diseases on the culling of Holstein dairy cows in New York State. J Dairy Sci 81, 966-978.
Gröhn, Y.T., Rajala-Schultz, P.J., 2000. Epidemiology of reproductive performance in dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 60-61, 605-614.
Gröhn, Y.T., Rajala-Schultz, P.J., Allore, H.G., DeLorenzo, M.A., Hertl, J.A., Galligan, D.T., 2003. Optimizing replacement of dairy cows: modeling the effects of diseases. Prev Vet Med 61, 27-43.
Mandal, A., Prasad, H., Kumar, A., Roy, R., Sharma, N., 2007. Factors associated with lamb mortalities in Muzaffarnagari sheep. Small Ruminant Res 71, 273-279.
Martin, S.W., Aziz, S.A., Sandals, W.C.D., Curtis, R.A., 1982. Theassociationbetween clinical disease, production and culling of holsten-friesian cows. Can J Anim Sci 62, 633-640.
McCullough, D.A., DeLorenzo, M.A., 1996. Effects of Price and Management Level on Optimal Replacement and Insemination Decisions1. J Dairy Sci 79, 242-253.
Milian-Suazo, F., Erb, H.N., Smith, R.D., 1988. Descriptive epidemiology of culling in dairy cows from 34 herds in New York State. Prev Vet Med 6, 243-251.
Rajala-Schultz, P.J., Gröhn, Y.T., 1999a. Culling of dairy cows. Part I. Effects of diseases on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows. Pre Vet Med 41, 195-208.
Rajala-Schultz, P.J., Gröhn, Y.T., 1999b. Culling of dairy cows. Part II. Effects of diseases and reproductive performance on culling in Finnish Ayrshire cows. Prev Vet Med 41, 279-294.
Rajala, P.J., Grohn, Y.T., 1998. Effects of dystocia, retained placenta, and metritis on milk yield in diary cows. J Dairy Sci 81, 3172-3181.
Regassa, A., Moje, N., Megersa, B., Beyene, D., Sheferaw, D., Debela, E., et al., 2013. Major causes of organs and carcass condemnation in small ruminants slaughtered at Luna Export Abattoir, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Prev VetMed 110, 139-148.
Safari, E., Fogarty, N.M., Gilmour, A.R., 2005. A review of genetic parameter estimates for wool, growth, meat and reproduction traits in sheep. Livest Prod Sci 92, 271-289.
Southey, B.R., Rodriguez-Zas, S.L., Leymaster, K.A., 2001. Survival analysis of lamb mortality in a terminal sire composite population. J Anim Sci 79, 2298-2306.
Stevenson, M., Lean, I., 1998. Descriptive epidemiological study on culling and deaths in eight dairy herds. Aust Vet J 76, 482-488.
Van Arendonk, J.A.M., 1988. Management Guides for Insemination and Replacement Decisions. J Dairy Sci 71, 1050-1057.
Van Arendonk, J.A.M., Dijkhuizen, A.A., 1985. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle. III. Influence of variation in reproduction and production. Livest Prod Sci 13, 333-349.