Detection and Isolation of H9N2 Subtype of Avian Influenza Virus in House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) of Ahvaz, Iran

Document Type: Short Communication

Authors

1 Department of avian health and diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of avian health and diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Tehran branch, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Avian influenza (AI) is an acute infectious disease with worldwide significance causing extensive economic losses in the poultry industry. Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) belong to the family Orthomyxoviridae and categorized in the genus influenza virus A. These viruses have been isolated from more than 100 species of free-living birds. Migratory birds are considered as reservoirs for AIVs and are the major agents responsible for global outbreaks. The Passeriformes are found in most parts of the world and cover a variety of habitats from rural to urban areas. House sparrows are members of the family Passeridae and due to their free flying, are strongly associated with seabirds, indigenous, and industrial poultry. The aim of this study was to determine the role of house sparrows in AIV (H9N2) circulation in the Ahvaz region. The intestinal and tracheal samples were taken from 200 sparrows around Ahvaz during 2017. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using specific primers in order to detect M and H9 genes of AIVs. The positive specimens in the PCR for the M gene were inoculated into 9-11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs via the allantoic fluid. The results showed that 11 out of 200 samples were positive for the two genes of M and H9. According to the findings of the present study, house sparrows are infected with H9N2 and pose a threat to commercial poultry. These birds may play a significant role in the transmission of AIV between wildlife and domestic animals. Therefore, this issue is important to be considered in preventive measurements.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Chen, H., Smith, G.J., Zhang, S.Y., Qin, K., Wang, J., Li, K.S., et al., 2005. Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature 436, 191-192.
Elmberg, J., Berg, C., Lerner, H., Waldenstrom, J., Hessel, R., 2017. Potential disease transmission from wild geese and swans to livestock, poultry and humans: a review of the scientific literature from a One Health perspective. Infect Ecol Epidemiol 7, 1300450.
Forrest, H.L., Kim, J.K., Webster, R.G., 2010. Virus shedding and potential for interspecies waterborne transmission of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in sparrows and chickens. J Virol 84, 3718-3720.
Hadipour, M., Vosoughi, A., Fakhrabadipour, M., Azad, F., Khademi, I., 2011. Serological Evaluation for Supporting the Potential Role of House Sparrows in LPAIV (H9N2) Transmission. Int J Anim Vet Adv 3, 189-192.
Jourdain, E., Gunnarsson, G., Wahlgren, J., Latorre-Margalef, N., Brojer, C., Sahlin, S., et al., 2010. Influenza virus in a natural host, the mallard: experimental infection data. PLoS One 5, e8935.
Liu, J., Xiao, H., Lei, F., Zhu, Q., Qin, K., Zhang, X.W., et al., 2005. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus infection in migratory birds. Science 309, 1206.
Lu, H., Castro, A.E., 2004. Evaluation of the infectivity, length of infection, and immune response of a low-pathogenicity H7N2 avian influenza virus in specific-pathogen-free chickens. Avian Dis 48, 263-270.
Mase, M., Tsukamoto, K., Imada, T., Imai, K., Tanimura, N., Nakamura, K., et al., 2005. Characterization of H5N1 influenza A viruses isolated during the 2003-2004 influenza outbreaks in Japan. Virol 332, 167-176.
Mundt, E., Gay, L., Jones, L., Saavedra, G., Tompkins, S.M., Tripp, R.A., 2009. Replication and pathogenesis associated with H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3 low-pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens and ducks. Arch Virol 154, 1241-1248.
Nili, H., Asasi, K., 2003. Avian influenza (H9N2) outbreak in Iran. Avian Dis 47, 828-831.
Peterson, A.T., Bush, S.E., Spackman, E., Swayne, D.E., Ip, H.S., 2008. Influenza A virus infections in land birds, People's Republic of China. Emerg Infect Dis 14, 1644-1646.
Seifi, S., Asasi, K., Mohammadi, A., 2009. A study of co-infection caused by avian influenza (H9 subtype) and infection bronchitis virus in broiler chicken farms showing respiratory signs. OJVR 13, 53-62.
Spickler, A.R., Trampel, D.W., Roth, J.A., 2008. The onset of virus shedding and clinical signs in chickens infected with high-pathogenicity and low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses. Avian Pathol 37, 555-577.
Swayne, D.E., Glisson , J.R., Jackwood, M.W., Pearson, J.E., Reed, W.M., 1998. A Laboratory Manual for the Isolation and Identification of Avian Pathogens, American Association of Avian Pathologists, College Station, TX, pp. 169-174.
Swayne, D.R., Suarez, D.L., Sims, L.D., 2013. Influenza. In: Swayne, D.E., Glisson, J.R., McDougald, L.R., Nolan, L.K., Suarez, D.L., Nair, V. (Eds.), Diseases of Poultry, Ames: A John Wiley & Sons, Inc., PublicationIowa 50010, USA: Wiley - Blackwell pp. 181-218.
Tweed, S.A., Skowronski, D.M., David, S.T., Larder, A., Petric, M., Lees, W., et al., 2004. Human illness from avian influenza H7N3, British Columbia. Emerg Infect Dis 10, 2196-2199.
Wang, H.N., Wu, Q.Z., Huang, Y., Liu, P., 1997. Isolation and identification of infectious bronchitis virus from chickens in Sichuan, China. Avian Dis 41, 279-282.
Yuanji, G., 2002. Influenza activity in China: 1998–1999. Vaccine 20, S28-S35.