An Investigation into Enterobacteriaceae Responsible for Early Mortality in Japanese Quail Chicks and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of Avian Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Graduated from Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

Abstract

Quail is an alternative source of protein for humans. These birds can be affected by common bacterial infections. Bacterial contamination of egg is the most common cause of mortality in Japanese quail chicks. In order to study the role of some members of Enterobacteriaceae responsible for early mortality in Japanese quail chicks, 100 dead or moribund quail chicks were obtained from 10 different farms in Ahvaz, Iran. Samples were taken from the liver and yolk sac of the birds and bacterial isolation from samples was conducted by streaking them on MacConkey, Brilliant Green, Salmonella-Shigella and Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate agar plates. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 24-48 hours, and by standard biochemical tests bacterial isolates were identified. Final confirmation of Salmonella serotypes was performed by Razi Institute. All the isolates were examined for susceptibility to 12 different antibiotics (Padtan-Teb Co., Tehran, Iran) by the disk diffusion (Kirby Bauer) method. The results showed that 78% of the quail chicks were infected. The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (44%), Klebsiella pneumonia (8%), Salmonella serovar ruzizi (5%), Salmonella serovar typhimurium (3%), Enterobacter cloacae (4%), Enterobacter aerogenes (4%), Proteus vulgaris (5%) and Proteus mirabilis (5%). One hundred percent susceptibility was observed to gentamycin, soltrim, tetracycline, fosfomycin, florfenicol, cephalexin and ceftriaxone. E. coli isolates were susceptible to soltrim and ceftriaxone, Salmonella isolates were susceptible to fosfomycin, Enterobacter isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone and Proteus and Klebsiella isolates showed susceptibility to ceftriaxone. It is concluded that the members of Enterobacteriaceae family, specifically the genera Escherichia and Salmonella, are the major causes of early mortality in newly-hatched Japanese quail chicks.

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Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

Enquête sur les Entérobactéries Responsables de la Mortalité Précoce des Poussins de Caille Japonais et de leurs Profils de Sensibilité aux Antibiotiques

Abstract [French]

La caille est une source alternative de protéines pour l'homme. Ces oiseaux peuvent être touchés par des infections bactériennes courantes. La contamination bactérienne des œufs est la cause la plus fréquente de mortalité chez les poussins de caille japonais. Afin d'étudier le rôle de certains membres des Entérobactéries responsables de la mortalité précoce chez les poussins de caille japonais, 100 poussins de caille morts ou moribonds ont été obtenus à partir de 10 fermes différentes de la ville d'Ahvaz (Iran). Des prélèvements ont été effectués aux niveaux du foie et de la vésicule vitelline des oiseaux et l'isolement bactérien a été réalisé en les striant sur des plaques de gélose MacConkey, Brilliant Green, Salmonella-Shigella et Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate. Les plaques ont été incubées à 37 °C pendant 24 à 48 heures et des tests biochimiques standards ont permis d'identifier les isolats bactériens obtenus. La confirmation finale des sérotypes des salmonelles a été effectuée par l’Institut Razi. La sensibilité de chacun des isolâtes vis-à-vis de 12 antibiotiques différents (padtan-Teb Co., Téhéran, Iran) a été évaluée par la méthode de diffusion sur disque (Kirby Bauer). Nos résultats ont montré que 78% des poussins de caille étaient infectés. Les bactéries isolées étaient Escherichia coli (44%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8%), Salmonella sérovar ruzizi (5%), Salmonella sérovar typhimurium (3%), Enterobacter cloacae (4%), Enterobacter aerogenes (4%), Proteus vulgaris (5%) et Proteus mirabilis (5%). On a observé une sensibilité de 100% des isolates vis-à-vis de la gentiamycine, du soltrim, de la tétracycline, de la fosfomycine, du florfénicol, de la céphalexine et de la ceftriaxone. Les isolats d'E. coli étaient sensibles à la soltrim et à la ceftriaxone alors que, les isolats de Salmonella étaient éliminés par la fosfomycine. La ceftriaxone s'est avérée également efficace contre les isolats d'Enterobacter de Proteus et Klebsiella. On peut en conclure que les membres de la famille des Entérobactéries, en particulier les genres Escherichia et Salmonella, sont les principales causes de mortalité précoce chez les poussins de caille japonais récemment éclos.

Keywords [French]

  • Caille Japonaise
  • Mortalité
  • Entérobactéries
  • Susceptibilité aux Antibiotiques
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