Analysis of variations, structures, and phylogenic characteristics of bovine leukocyte antigen DRB3 exon2

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of Viral Animal Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Avian Bacterial Diseases, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3 is a highly polymorphic gene in major histocompatibility complex
(MHC) class II that plays a central role in immune responses and production factors. As of yet, molecular and
evolutionary characteristics of BoLA-DRB3.2* have not been as fully understood as human and mouse.
Therefore, we attempted to analyze variability and phylogeny of BoLA-DRB3.2* and illustrate some novel
practical evidence on interspecies diversity, the resistance /susceptibility points in cattle breeding, and vaccine
design. Initially, BoLA-DRB3.2* alleles and orthologous exons in the selected livestock were retrieved and
checked. In the next step, the secondary/tertiary structure of BoLA-DRB3.2*24 gene product was modeled and
validated. Then, hypervariable regions (HVRs) of alleles were identified by hybrid approaches. In the last step,
interspecies relationship, allele’s phylogeny/grouping, and estimate of average evolutionary divergence were
explored. Shannon entropy variation analysis showed eight HVRs and three semi-variable regions in BoLADRB3.2*
alleles. These HVRs were present in all the three sub-structures and dominantly existed in alpha helix.
In addition, strong relationships and little diversity were noted in phylogenetic trees of cattle, buffaloes, sheep,
and goats. Furthermore, there was some evidence on divergence of DRB3 before speciation among the
mentioned species and possibility of cross prediction resistance/susceptibility alleles. Finally, DRB3 alleles were
grouped into seven clusters, and older and newer alleles were identified. The results show that similar studies
should be done in other animals to better understand the nature of the DRB3 attributes.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

L'analyse des changements, la structure et les propriétés de Filoujnikagezone 2 de BoLA-DRB3 chez les vaches

Abstract [French]

L’exon 2 de BoLA-DRB3 est un gène lié au MHC classe 2, jouant a un rôle central dans la réponse immunitaire et les facteurs de production. Jusqu’à présent, les caractéristiques moléculaires et évolutives de BoLA-DRB3.2 ainsi que pour des molécules équivalentes comme HLA2-DRB3 chez l’homme et H2-DRB3 chez la souris n’ont pas été suffisamment comprises. A cet effet, des analyses de variabilité, phylogénétiques, structurelles et de séquencage de BoLA-DRB3.2 ont été menées. Cet article présente quelques nouveaux résultats aidant à determiner la variation entre les espèces et la sensibilité / résistance à cette maladie pour la conception d’un nouveau vaccin. En premier lieu, les allèles de BOLA DRB3.2 et les exons orthologues ont été extraits de la base des données afin d’être analysées. Ensuite, les structures secondaire et tertiaire de BoLA-DRB3.2 ont été visualisées et vérifiées. Les régions très variables (HVR) ont été identifiées par des approches hybrides. La dernière étape consistait à étudier les relations interspécifique, comme la phylogénie et le regroupement des allèles ainsi que l'estimation moyenne de la ivergence évolutive. Les résultats de ces analyses ont montré huit HVR et trois frontières dans l'analyse de la variabilité de l'entropie de hannon. Ces HVR ont été détectés dans toutes les sous structures et étaient plus particulièrement localisés au niveau sde l’alpha hélix. Les analyses phylogéniques montraient une relation évolutionnaire élevée et une faible diversité parmi les bovins, les buffles, les moutons et les chèvres. De plus, ces données suggèrent que DRB3 est exprimé avant la spéciation pouvant, de ce fait, permettre la prédiction et la sélection des allèles responsables de la résistance / sensibilité sur la base de la similitude entre ces espèces. Enfin, DRB3 a été divisé en sept groupes et les classes d'allèles anciennes et plus récentes ont été identifiées.

Keywords [French]

  • BoLA DRB3.2
  • vache
  • les changements
  • la modélisation
  • la phylogénie
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