Alimentary tract parasites of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops): A potential reservoir for human transmission

Document Type: Short Communication

Authors

1 Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Monkeys are important experimental models for investigating human diseases. The aim of this study was to survey the alimentary tract parasites among imported vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) to Iran. Fecal samples were collected from 40 vervets imported from Tanzania to Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute of Iran. Fecal samples were assessed by direct smear and Telman sedimentation methods. The results of microscopic examination demonstrated that all (100%) the animals were infected with different alimentary tract parasites. The protozoan parasites comprised of Iodamoeba butschlii (85%), Entamoeba coli (72.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (37.5%), Chilomastix mesnili (12.5%), Balantidium coli (10%), Blastocystis hominis (7.5%), and Giardia intestinalis (5%). Additionally, eggs of some helminths, including Physaloptera caucasica (27.5%), Trichostrongylus spp. (7.5%), Trichuris trichiura (7.5%), Bertiella spp. (2.5%), and Strongyloides fulleborni (2.5%), were detected. The presence of gastrointestinal parasites in vervetsposes a risk for human or experimental results. Thus, the diagnosis and treatment of these parasites should be considered before any laboratory assay.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

Les parasites du tube digestif du singe Vervet : un réservoir potentiellement transmissible aux humains

Abstract [French]

Les singes sont utilisés comme modèle animal dans l’étude de nombreuses maladies humaines. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les parasites affectant le tube digestif des Vervets (Cercopithecusaethiops) importés en Iran. Des prélèvements de fèces ont été recueillis à partir de 40 Vervets importés de Tanzanie par l’Institut Razi de Recherche sur les Vaccins et Sérums d’Iran. Les échantillons fécaux ont été analysés par frottis direct et par la méthode de sédimentation de Telman. Les observations microscopiques démontrent que tous les échantillons (100% des singes testés) étaient infectés par différents parasites du tube digestif. Différents parasites protozoaires ont été détectés comme l’Iodamoebabutschlii (85%), l’Entamoebacoli (72,5%), l’Entamoebahistolytica/dispar (37,5%), le Chilomastixmesnili (12,5%), le Balantidiumcoli (10%), le Blastocystishominis (7,5%) et le Giardiaintestinalis (5%). De plus, des œufs d’helminthes appartenant aux espèces Physalopteracaucasica (27,5%), Trichostrongylusspp. (7,5%), Trichuristrichiura (7,5%), Bertiellaspp. (2,5%) et Strongyloidesfulleborni (2,5%) ont été identifiés. La présence de parasites intestinaux chez les Vervets constitue un risque potentiel pour l’homme ainsi que pour la fiabilité des expérimentations. Par conséquent, le diagnostic et le traitement de ces parasites doivent être considérés avant chaque étude en laboratoire.

Keywords [French]

  • Singes Vervets
  • Tube digestif
  • PARASITES
  • Telman
Baker, D.G., 1998. Natural pathogens of laboratory mice, rats, and rabbits and their effects on research. Clin Microbiol Rev 11, 231-266.

Berrilli, F., Prisco, C., Friedrich, K.G., Di Cerbo, P., Di Cave, D., De Liberato, C., 2011. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits. Parasit Vectors 4, 199.

Bezjian, M., Gillespie, T.R., Chapman, C.A., Greiner, E.C., 2008. Coprologic evidence of gastrointestinal helminths of forest baboons, Papio anubis, in Kibale National Park, Uganda. J Wildl Dis 44, 878-887.

Carvalho Filho, P.R.D., Cardozo, S.V., Ribeiro, C.T., Md., M.S., G., L.C.W., 2006. Intestinal protozoa in apprehended New World nonhuman primates. Braz J vet Res anim Sci 43, 354-361.

DuPont, H.L., 2009. Systematic review: the epidemiology and clinical features of travellers' diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 30, 187-196.

Furtado, A.P., Batista, E.d.J.O., Gonçalves, E.C., Silva, A.M.H.O., Melo, F.T.V., Giese, E.G., Santos, J.N., 2012. Human Bertielliasis in Amazonia: Case Report and Challenging Diagnosis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6, e1580.

Herodin, F., Thullier, P., Garin, D., Drouet, M., 2005. Nonhuman primates are relevant models for research in hematology, immunology and virology. Eur Cytokine Netw 16, 104-116.

Herwaldt, B.L., 2001. Laboratory-acquired parasitic infections from accidental exposures. Clin Microbiol Rev 14, 659-688, table of contents.

Howells, M.E., Pruetz, J., Gillespie, T.R., 2011. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal. Am J Primatol 73, 173-179.

Kooriyama, T., Hasegawa, H., Shimozuru, M., Tsubota, T., Nishida, T., Iwaki, T., 2012. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Primates 53, 365-375.

Kooriyama, T., Inaba, A., Nishida, T., Iwaki, T., 2010. Case report of helminths and lung mite infection in the red-tailed monkey, Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti, in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Primates 51, 183-188.

Lee, J.I., Kim, N.A., Ahn, K.H., Park, C.G., 2010. Investigation of helminths and protozoans infecting old world monkeys: captive vervet, cynomolgus, and rhesus monkeys. Korean J Vet Res 50, 273-277.

Legesse, M., Erko, B., 2004. Zoonotic intestinal parasites in Papio anubis (baboon) and Cercopithecus aethiops (vervet) from four localities in Ethiopia. Acta Trop 90, 231-236.

Malik, S., Srivastava, V.K., Samantaray, J.C., 2013. Human bertiellosis from north India. Indian J Pediatr 80, 258-260.

McCarthy, J., Moore, T.A., 2000. Emerging helminth zoonoses. International Journal for Parasitology 30, 1351-1359.

McSorley, H.J., Maizels, R.M., 2012. Helminth infections and host immune regulation. Clin Microbiol Rev 25, 585-608.

Munene, E., Otsyula, M., Mbaabu, D.A.N., Mutahi, W.T., Muriuki, S.M.K., Muchemi, G.M., 1998. Helminth and protozoan gastrointestinal tract parasites in captive and wild-trapped African non-human primates. Veterinary Parasitology 78, 195-201.

Muriuki, S.M.K., Murugu, R.K., Munene, E., Karere, G.M., Chai, D.C., 1998. Some gastro-intestinal parasites of zoonotic (public health) importance commonly observed in old world non-human primates in Kenya. Acta Tropica 71, 73-82.

Parmar, S., Jani, R., Mathakiya, R., 2012. Study of parasitic infections in non-human primates of Gujarat state, India. Vet World 5, 362-364.

Parr, N.A., Fedigan, L.M., Kutz, S.J., 2013. A coprological survey of parasites in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from Sector Santa Rosa, ACG, Costa Rica. Folia Primatol (Basel) 84, 102-114.

Petrášová, J., Modrý, D., Huffman, M.A., Mapua, M.I., Bobáková, L., Mazoch, V., Singh, J., Kaur, T., Petrželková, K.J., 2010. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Indigenous and Introduced Primate Species of Rubondo Island National Park, Tanzania. Int J Primatol 31, 920-936.

Petrasova, J., Uzlikova, M., Kostka, M., Petrzelkova, K.J., Huffman, M.A., Modry, D., 2011. Diversity and host specificity of Blastocystis in syntopic primates on Rubondo Island, Tanzania. Int J Parasitol 41, 1113-1120.

Sato, M., Yoonuan, T., Sanguankiat, S., Nuamtanong, S., Pongvongsa, T., Phimmayoi, I., Phanhanan, V., Boupha, B., Moji, K., Waikagul, J., 2011. Short report: Human Trichostrongylus colubriformis infection in a rural village in Laos. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84, 52-54.

Singh, K., 2009. Laboratory-acquired infections. Clin Infect Dis 49, 142-147.

Sohail, M.R., Fischer, P.R., 2005. Blastocystis hominis and travelers. Travel Med Infect Dis 3, 33-38.

Thompson, R.C., Smith, A., 2011. Zoonotic enteric protozoa. Vet Parasitol 182, 70-78.