Histopathological changes and biochemical analysis of sulfadiazine injected in egg in chicken embryo pectoral muscles

Document Type : Original Articles


1 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran,Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran

3 Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran


This study aimed to investigate the effects of different doses of sulfadiazine on embryonic chicken pectoral muscles. In total, 100 fertile eggs were obtained and divided into five groups of control (no injection) and sulfadiazine injection at doses of 2, 10, 30, and 70 mg/kg. After hatching, pectoral muscle tissues were harvested from the newly hatched chickens for histopathological examination and measurement of oxidative stress parameters. Microscopic examination of pectoral muscle samples indicated that sulfadiazine administration changed the histopathological structure of chicken pectoral muscles only at very high doses (30 and 70 mg/kg). Major histopathologic events associated with sulfadiazine cytotoxicity were multifocal degeneration, necrotic tissue changes, and inflammatory cell infiltration (predominantly mononuclear cells) around degenerated and necrotic muscle fibers. Moreover, sulfadiazine at doses of 10, 30 and 70 mg/kg increased malondialdehyde level and decreased glutathione, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total carotenoid, which indicated oxidative damage in broiler skeletal muscles. Therefore, it could be concluded that in-egg administration of up to 10 mg/kg of sulfadiazine is safe for chicken embryo, whereas dosage of 30 mg/kg (or above) is considered highly toxic.


Main Subjects

Article Title [French]

Analyses biochimiques et histopathologiques des changements induits par l’injection de sulfadiazine dans le muscle pectoral embryonnaire d’un œuf de poulet

Abstract [French]

L’objectif de cette étude était l’étude des effets générés par l’injection de différentes doses de sulfadiazine dans le muscle pectoral embryonnaire de poulet. Au total, 100 œufs fertiles ont été collectés et répartis dans 5 groupes comprenant un groupe de contrôle (sans injection) et 4 groupes pour les injections de sulfadiazine à 2, 10, 30, et 70 mg/kg. Après éclosion, les tissus du muscle pectoral des poussins ont été prélevés et soumis à des examens d’histopathologies et de mesure des paramètres de stress oxydatif. Les observations microscopiques des prélèvements de muscle pectoral ont révélé des changements dans leurs structures histologiques suite à l’administration de sulfadiazine à très fortes doses (30 et 70 mg/kg). Les effets cytotoxiques majeurs du sulfadiazine comprenaient une dégénération multifocale, des changements dans les tissus nécrotiques et l’infiltration de cellules inflammatoires (particulièrement de cellules mononuclées) au niveau des fibres musculaires dégénérés et nécrotiques. De plus, les doses de sulfadiazine de 10, 30 et 70 mg/kg provoquaient une augmentation du taux de malondialdéhyde ainsi qu’une diminution du glutathionne, du FRAP (ferric reducing antioxydant power) et du taux de caroténoïde total, signe de dommages oxydatifs au niveau des muscles squelettiques des poulets étudiés. En conclusion, l’administration dans l’œuf de jusqu’à 10 mg/kg de sulfadiazine n’entraine pas de risques pour l’embryon du poulet alors que les doses de plus de 30 mg/kg se sont avérées être fortement toxiques.

Keywords [French]

  • Toxicité du Sulfadiazine
  • Muscle pectoral
  • Embryon de poulet
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