In an attempt to characterize Theileria parva parasites circulating in South Sudan cattle , polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays were carried out using four single copy encoding antigen genes p104, PIM, p150 and p67 in addition to one microsatellite MS321. A total of 20 bovine DNA samples from two locations in South Sudan were included in this study, in addition to two references strains, Muguga and Katete. A total of nine alleles were identified for the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) locus using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), against 2 alleles each for the p150 and p104 loci, respectively. This confirms that differences in the polymorphic PIM genes alone could be used to characterize subdivisions in the T. parva populations in the field. On the other hand, 4 alleles were identified for the MS321 locus and 2 alleles for the p67 locus. The data indicate that the studied parasites are genetically closely related, mainly cattle derived and genetically quite distinct from the Muguga strain.