To isolate and detect anthrax spores from soil in different regions of Isfahan, Iran a total of 60 environmental specimens were collected during 2003. Bacterial endospores were extracted via flotation in distilled water and were cultured on blood agar and selective PLET media. Bacillus anthracis was identified using bacteriological and biological tests. Viable Bacillus anthracis spores were isolated from 9 (15%) soil samples of the 60 collected specimens in which 6 (66%) of isolates were encapsulated. The isolated bacteria and their virulence were confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Its recommend that because of the existence of highly virulent strain of Bacillus anthracis in this region, a review on implementation of control programs such as regular vaccination of all susceptible livestock and surveillance of the disease in animals and human in such endemic areas is required.