Humoral immune response to Diphtheria and Tetanus toxoids by intranasal administration



  The immunogenicity of ten different formulations of intranasal diphtheria and tetanus vaccines which containing different absorption enhancers, adjuvants and other excipients were determined in guinea pigs by the serum neutralization (SN) method. From these ten formulations, it was selected four formulations which gave significant immunogenicity in guinea pigs. In order to design the "final formulation" composition of these four formulations investigated properly and final formulations designed accordingly and tested in human volunteers. The parenteral and intranasal diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DT) vaccines were tested in two groups of human volunteers, and serological responses were estimated in both groups (The parenteral DT vaccine containing aluminum phosphates as an adjuvant). Our results showed very good serological responses (p