Prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae (Apicomplexa: Haemoproteidae) and Trichomonas gallinae (Metamonada: Trichomonadidae) infections among pigeons (Columba livia) in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran

Document Type: Short Communication

Authors

1 Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

Abstract

A cross-sectional survey was performed on domestic pigeons (Columba liviadomestica) to evaluate the prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in West Azerbaijan Province, northwest of Iran between July 2015 and September 2016. Five hundred and sixty oropharyngeal swab smears were examined, 297 (53%) of which were identified to be positive for T. gallinae. Also, the results obtained from blood smears examination indicated that 115 (20.5%) cases were found to be infected with H. columbae. The rates of T. gallinae and H. columbae infection infemale pigeons (58.3% and 21.3%, respectively) were higher compared to those in males. There were 76 (26.1%) and 210 (72.4%) cases of H. columbae and T. gallinae infection in adolescent birds, respectively, which were higher than those in other age groups. We found high prevalence rates of H. columbae and T. gallinae infections in domestic pigeons. Therefore, more attention should be focused on controlling the spread of T. gallinae and H. columbae infection in domestic pigeons.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

Prévalence des infections aux Haemoproteus columbae (Apicomplexa: Haemoproteidae) et Trichomonas gallinae (Metamonada: Trichomonadidae) chez les pigeons (Columba livia) dela province de l'Azerbaïdjan occidental (Iran)

Abstract [French]

Une enquête transversale a été réalisée sur des pigeons domestiques (Columba liviadomestica) pour évaluer la prévalence de Haemoproteus columbae et Trichomonas gallinae en Azerbaïdjan occidental, au nord-ouest de l'Iran entre juillet 2015 et septembre 2016. Sur les 560 frottis oropharyngés examinés, 297 (%53) étaient positifs pour T. Gallinae. De plus, le résultat de l'examen des frottis sanguins a montré que 115 pigeons (%20/5) étaient infectés par H. columbae. Les pigeons femelles ont montré un taux d’ infection plus élevée à T. gallinae (%58/3) et H. Columbae (%21/3) comparées aux pigeons mâles. Les taux d'infection par H. columbae et T. gallinae chez les oiseaux adolescents étaient respectivement de 76 (%26/1) et 210 (%72/4) étant les plus élevés parmi les différentsgroupes d’âge. Dans cetteétude, une forte prévalence desinfections par H. columbae et T. gallinae a été observée chez les pigeons. Par conséquent, une plus grande attention devrait être accordée à la lutte contre la propagation de T. gallinae et H. columbae chez les pigeons domestiques.

Keywords [French]

  • Haemoproteus columbae
  • Trichomonas gallinae
  • Azerbaïdjan occidental
  • Iran
Al-Sadi, H.I., Hamodi, A.Z., 2011. Prevalence and Pathology of Trichomoniasis in Free–Living Urban Pigeons in the City of Mosul, Iraq Vet World 4, 12–14.

Bahrami, A., Louei Monfared, A., Razmjoo, M., 2012. Pathological study of parasitism in racing pigeons: An indication of its effects on community health. African J Biotechnol 11, 12364-70.

Begum, N., Mamun, M.A.A., Rahman, S.A., Bari, A.S.M., 2008. Epidemiology and pathology of Trichomonas gallinae in the common pigeon (Columba livia). J Bangladesh Agric Univ. 6, 301–306.

Borji, H., Moghaddas, E., Razmi, G., Bami, M.H., Mohri, M., Azad, M., 2011. Prevalence of pigeon haemosporidians and effect of infection on biochemical factors in Iran  J Parasit. Dis 35, 199-201.

Eimanifar, A., Mohebbi, F., 2007. Urmia Lake (northwest Iran): a brief review. Saline Systems 3, 5.

Estes, W.A., Mannan, R.W., 2003. Feeding behavior of Cooper’s Hawks at urban and rural nests in southeastern Arizona. Condor. 105, 107–116.

Gicik, Y., Arsalan, M. ozkan, 2001. Blood parasites of wild pigeons in Ankara District. Turkish J Vet Anim Sci 25, 169–172.

Jiang, X., Sun, J., Wang, F., Li, H., Zhao, X., 2016. Prevalence of Trichomonas spp. in domestic pigeons in Shandong Province, China, and genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Vet  J 211, 88–93.

Maharana, B.R., Kumar, B., 2016. Pseudomalaria in a domestic pigeon: a case report. J  Parasit Dis. 1–3.

Merino, S., Potti, J., 1995. High prevalence of hematozoa in nestlings of a passerine species, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Auk 112, 1041–1043.

Mushi, E.Z., Binta, M.G., Chabo, R.G., Ndebele, R., Panzirah, R., 2000. Parasites of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Sebele, Gaborone, Botswana: short communication. J  Afr Vet Assoc 71, 249–250.

Nematollahi, A., Ebrahimi, M., Ahmadi, A., Himan, M., 2012. Prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Columba domestica) in Isfahan, Iran. J Parasit Dis 36, 141–142.

Orajaka, L.J., Nweze, L.C., 1990. Prevalence of blood protozoan parasites of avian species in Nsukka area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Beitr. Trop. Landwirtsch. Veterinarmed  29, 91–95.

Qiu, S.B., Yan, C., Zhou, D.H., Hou, J., Wang, Q.Q., Lin, Y., Fu, H.C., Zhang, J., Weng, Y.B., Song, H.Q., 2012. High prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in subtropical southern China. African J Microbiol Res 6, 3261–3264.

Radfar, M.H., Fathi, S., Asl, E.N., Dehaghi, M.M., Seghinsara, H.R., 2011. A survey of parasites of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in South Khorasan, Iran. Vet Res 4, 18–23.

Radfar, M.H., Khedri, J., Adinehbeigi, K., Nabavi, R., Rahmani, K., 2012. Prevalence of parasites and associated risk factors in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and free-range backyard chickens of Sistan region, east of Iran. J Parasit Dis 36, 220–225.

Sansano-Maestre, J., Garijo-Toledo, M.M., Gómez-Muñoz, M.T., 2009. Prevalence and genotyping of Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons and birds of prey. Avian Pathol 38, 201–207.

Scaglione, F.E., Pregel, P., Cannizzo, F.T., Pérez-Rodríguez, A.D., Ferroglio, E., Bollo, E., 2015. Prevalence of new and known species of haemoparasites in feral pigeons in northwest Italy. Malar J 14, 99.

Sol, D., Jovani, R., Torres, J., 2003. Parasite mediated mortality and host immune response explain age-related differences in blood parasitism in birds. Oecologia 135, 542–547.

Youssefi, M., Rahimi, M., 2010. Haemoproteus Columbae in Columba livia domestica of Three Areas in Iran in 2010. Glob Vet 7, 593-5.