Molecular Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae from Backyard and Commercial Turkeys in Some Parts of Iran

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of Poultry and Obstetrics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Alborz, Iran

Abstract

M. synoviae (MS) is an economically important pathogen and the major cause of airsacculitis and infectious synovitis in turkeys. Infection with this pathogen may remain asymptomatic but can render infected birds susceptible to secondary infections. This study was carried out for the molecular detection of MS infection in commercial and backyard turkey flocks in Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Qazvin, Zanjan, East Azerbaijan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Golestan provinces of Iran. Sixty-hundred tracheal, choanal cleft or/and infraorbital sinus samples were collected from 18 commercial and 31 backyard turkey flocks. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was performed by using primers specific for detecting the 16S rRNA and vlhA genes of MS. The results showed that 51.61% of backyard and 33.33% of commercial farms were MS-positive. These findings suggested the molecular presence of MS, especially in northern and central regions of Iran. Further, the frequency of MS-positive samples was significantly lower in commercial farms than backyard farms (P<0.05).

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

Détection moléculaire de Mycoplasma synoviae chez des dindes domestiques et commerciales dans certaines parties de l'Iran

Abstract [French]

Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) est un agent pathogène important sur le plan économique et la principale cause de l'airsacculite et de la synovite infectieuse chez les dindons. L'infection peut rester sans signes cliniques, mais peut rendre les oiseaux sensibles aux infections secondaires. Cette étude a été réalisée pour la détection moléculaire de l'infectionau Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) dans les fermes commerciales de dindes dans les provinces iraniennes de Téhéran, Semnan, Ispahan, Qazvin, Zanjan, Azerbaïdjan oriental, Gilan, Mazandaran et Golestan. Un total de 600 échantillons de trachée, de fente choanale et / ou de sinus infra orbital ont été prélevés à partir de 18 troupeaux de dindes commerciales et 31 dindes de basse-cour. La réaction en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) a été réalisée avec des amorces spécifiques pour la détection des gènes ARNr 16S et vlhA de la SEP. Les résultats ont été comparés et ont montré que 51,61% des basses-cours et %33,33 des fermes commerciales étaient séropositives. Ces résultats suggèrent la présence moléculaire du MS, en particulier dans le nord et le centre de l'Iran. De même que les échantillons MS positifs obtenus des fermes commerciales étaient significativement plus bas que dans les basses cours (0/05

Keywords [French]

  • Mycoplasma synoviae
  • Commercial
  • Basse-cour
  • Turquie
  • Détection Moléculaire
  • Iran
Bradbury, J.M., and S. Levisohn, 1996. Experimental infections in poultry. In: Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology, Volume II – Diagnostic Procedures, Vol. II.J.G. Tully, ed. Academic Press, San Diego, California 361–370.

Bradley, L.D., Snyder, D.B.,van Deusen, R.A,. 1988. Identification of species-specific and interspecies-specific polypeptides of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and mycoplasma synoviae. Am J Vet Res 49, 511-515.

Cordy, D.R., Adler, H.E., 1965. Brain and muscle lesions caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkey poults. Am J Vet Res 26, 186e190.

Christensen, N.H., Yavari, C.A., Mc Bain, A.J., Bradbury, J.M., 1994. Investigations into the survival of mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae and Mycoplasma iowae on materials founds in poultry house environment. Avian Pathol 23, 127-143.

Dhondt, A.A., DeCoste, J.C., Ley, D.H.,Hochachk, W.M., 2014. Diverse wild bird host range of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in eastern North America. Plos One 9, 1l103553.

Feberwee, A. & Landman. W., 2012. The successful implementation of mycoplasma gallisepticum monitoring and control programmes in dutch commercial poultry: a declining seroincidence during an eleven year period. Abstract of the 19th congress of the international organization for mycoplasmology, (p.153).

Feberwee, A., de Vries, T.S., Landman, W.J., 2008. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma synoviae in Dutch commercial poultry farms. Avian Pathol 37, 629-633.

Ghafouri, S. A., Bozorgmehrifard, M. H., Karimi, V., Nazemshirazi, M. H., Noormohammadi, A., Hosseini, H., 2011. Identification and primary differentiation of Iranian isolates of Mycoplasma synoviae using PCR based on amplification of conserved 5′ end of vlhA gene. J Vet Res 66, 117-122.

Ghaniei, A., 2016. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma synoviae isolated from broiler chickens of West Azarbaijan province by PCR of vlhA gene. In Veterinary Research Forum (Vol. 7, No. 3, p. 197). Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

Gross, W.B., 1990. Factors affecting the development of respiratory disease complex in chickens. Avian Dis 34, 607–10.

Haghbin, N. H., Pourbakhsh, S. A., Charkhkar, S., Sheikhi, N.,Ashtari, A., 2010. Isolation and detection of Mycoplasma synoviae from seropositive rapid reaction broiler breeder flocks by polymerase chain reaction and culture methods.Vet Rese 6, 31-35.

Haghighi-Khoshkhoo, P., Akbariazad G., Roohi, M., Inanlo, J.,Masoumi, M., Sami-Yousefi, P., 2011. Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae infection in the commercial layer flocks of the Centernorth of Iran. Afr J Microbiol Res 5, 2834-2837.

Jeffery, N., Gasser, R. B., Steer, P. A., Noormohammadi, A. H., 2007. Classification of Mycoplasma synoviae strains using single-strand conformation polymorphism and high-resolution melting-curve analysis of the vlhA gene single-copy region. Microbiology 153, 2679-2688.

Khan M.I., 2002. Multiplex PCR of avian pathogenic Mycoplasmas. Pp. 201-223 in PCR Detection of Microbial Pathogens. Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey.

Kleven, S.H., 2003. Mycoplasma synoviae infection. In: Saif, Y.M., Barnes, H.J., Glisson, J.R., Fadly, A.M., McDougald, L.R., Swayne, D.E. (Eds.), Diseases of Poultry. Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa.

Kleven, S.H., Fulton, R.M., Garcia, M., Ikuta, V.N., Leiting, V.A., Liu, T.,et al., 2004. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma gallisepticum isolates from Turkeys. Avian Dis 48, 562–569.

Kleven, S.H., 2008. Mycoplasma synoviae infection. In: Swyne, Y.M., Barnes, H.J., Glisson, J.R., Fadly, A.M., McDougald, L.R., Swayne, D.E. (Eds.), Diseases of Poultry. Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa.

Landman, W.J., 2014. Is Mycoplasma synoviae outrunning Mycoplasma gallisepticum? A viewpoint from the Netherlands. Avian Pathol 43, 2–8.

Landman, W.J. &Feberwee, A., 2001. Field studies on the association between amyloid arthropathy and Mycoplasma synoviae infection, and experimental reproduction of the condition in brown layers. AvianPathol30, 629–39.

Levisohn, S., Kleven, S.H., 2000. AvianMycoplasmosis (Mycoplasmagallisepticum) Revue Scientifique et Technique 19, 425-442.

Ley, D. H., 2012. Mycoplasmagallisepticum infection. Pages 807–834 in Diseases of Poultry. 12 ed. Y. M. Saif, ed. Blackwell Publishing Professional, Ames, IA.

Ley, D. H., Berkhoff, J.E.,  Levisohn, S., 1997. Molecular Epidemiologic Investigations of Mycoplasma gallisepticum conjunctivitis in songbirds by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Emergin Infect Dis 3, 375-380.

Loria, G.R., Ferrantelli, E., Giardina, G., Li Vecchi, L., Sparacino, L., Oliveri, F., et al., 2008. Isolation and characterization of unusual Mycoplasma spp. from captive Eurasian Griffon (Gyps fulvus) in Sicily. J Wildlife Dis 44, 159-63.

McBride, M.D., D.W. Hird, T.E. Carpenter, K.P. Snipes,C. Danaye-Elmi, and W. W. Utterback., 1991. Health survey of backyard poultry and other avian species located within one mile of commercial California meat-turkey flocks. Avian Dis. 35, 403–407.

Michiels, T., Welby, S., Vanrobaeys, M., Quinet, C., Rouffaer, L., Lens, L., et al., 2015. Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae in commercial poultry, racing pigeons and wild birds in Belgium. AvianPathol. Cavp2015-0116.R.

Marois, C., Savoye, C., Kobisch, M., Kempf, I., 2002. A reverse transcription-PCR assay to detect viable mycoplasma synoviae in poultry environmental samples. Vetmicrobiol89,17-28.

Marois, C., J.P. Picault, M. Kobisch, and I. Kempf., 2005. Experimental evidence of indirect transmission of Mycoplasma synoviae. Vet Res 36, 759–769.

Mohammed, H.O., Carpenter,T.E.,Yamamoto, R., McMartin, D.A.,1986. Prevalence of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae in commercial layers in southern and central California. Avian Dis 30, 519–526.

Nagai, S., Kazama, S.,Yagihashi, T., 1995. Ribotyping of Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains with a 16S ribosomal RNA gene probe. Avian Pathol 24, 633–642.

Nascimento, E.R., Yamamoto, R., Khan, M.I., 1993. Mycoplasma gallisepticum F vaccine strain-specific polymerase chain reaction. Avian Dis37,  203–211. Jan-Mar.

Noormohammadi, A. H., Markham, P. F., Kanci, A., Whithear, K. G.,  Browning, G. F., 2000. A novel mechanism for control of antigenic variation in the haemagglutinin gene family of Mycoplasma synoviae. MolMicrobiol35, 911-923.

Osorio, C., Fletcher, O.J.,Abdul-Aziz, T., Gonder, E.,Tilley, B., Ley, D.H., 2007. Pneumonia of turkey breeder hens associated with Mycoplasma synoviae. Avian Dis 51, 791–796.

Rezaie, M., 2008. 'Isolation and Molecular Identification of Mycoplasma Pathogen from turkeys of Eastern Azarbaijan Provinces', DVSc thesis, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

Stipkovits, L. & Szathmary, S., 2012. Review: Mycoplasma infection of ducks and geese. PoulSci 91, 2812–
2819.

Swayne, D.E., Glisson, J.R., McDougald, L.R., Nolan, L.K., Suarez, D.L, Nair, V.,2013.13th Edition. Diseases of poultry-Wiley-Blackwell.

Wyrzykowski, B., Albaric, O., Moreau, S., Nguyen, F., Fleurance, R., Belluco, S.,et al., 2013. Retrospective Study of Mycoplasma gallisepticum Meningoencephalitis in Six Turkey Flocks in western France. JComparPathol 148,173–177.

Zhao, S and Yamamoto, R, 1993. Detection of mycoplasma synoviae by polymerase chain reaction. Avian Pathol., 22, 533-542.