Chitosan-based Nanoparticles in Mucosal Vaccine Delivery

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

2 Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Human Vaccine and Serum, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Most infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic infiltrations from the mucosal tract. Nowadays, the use of vaccines has been widely investigated for the prevention of different infectious diseases, infertility, immune disorders, malignancies, and allergies. Broad-spectrum adjuvant substances have been studied for immune system stimulation with a greater efficiency against specific antigens. Various adjuvants have been developed such as inorganic, oil-based, and emulsion adjuvants, bacterial products and their derivatives, cytokines, cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs, and particulate systems. Mucosal vaccine delivery is an alternative route to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. Applying nanoparticles in vaccine formulations allows not only improved antigen stability and immunogenicity, but also targeted delivery, and consequently, more specific release of the agent of interest. Chitosan nanoparticles have immunological activity and mucoadhesive properties. They have been used as a mucosal vaccine delivery system for many antigens. This review provides an overview of the recent advances in chitosan nanoparticles as a novel mucosal vaccine delivery system.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

Nanoparticules à base de Chitosan dans l'Administration de Vaccins Muqueux

Abstract [French]

La plupart des maladies infectieuses sont causées par des infiltrations pathogènes provenant du tractus muqueux. De nos jours, l'utilisation de vaccins a été largement étudiée pour la prévention de différentes maladies infectieuses, de l'infertilité, des troubles immunitaires, des tumeurs malignes et des allergies. Des substances adjuvantes à large spectre ont été étudiées pour la stimulation du système immunitaire avec une efficacité accrue contre des antigènes spécifiques. Divers adjuvants ont été développés, tels que des adjuvants inorganiques, à base d'huile et d'émulsion, des produits bactériens et leurs dérivés, des cytokines, des motifs cytosine-guanine dinucléotide (CpG) et des systèmes particulaires. L'administration du vaccin muqueux est une voie alternative pour induire des réponses immunitaires humorales et cellulaires. L'application de nanoparticules dans les formulations de vaccins permet non seulement d'améliorer la stabilité et l'immunogénicité des antigènes, mais également de cibler la délivrance et, par conséquent, la libération plus spécifique de l'agent d'intérêt. Les nanoparticules de chitosan ont une activité immunologique et des propriétés mucoadhésives. Ils ont été utilisés comme système d'administration de vaccins muqueux pour de nombreux antigènes. Cet examen fournit un aperçu des avancées récentes dans les nanoparticules de chitosane en tant que nouveau système d'administration de vaccins muqueux.

Keywords [French]

  • Adjuvant
  • Nanoparticule de Chitosane
  • Administration de Vaccin Muqueux

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