Developing Vaccines Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease: A Biotechnological Approach

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Higher Education Center of Eghlid, Eghlid, Iran

2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious viral disease of livestock with significant economic effect. It is prevalent in various regions of Asia, Africa, and South America. The causative agent of this disease is called foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which is a member of Aphthovirus genus. Vaccination is an effective technique to prevent the complications of FMD and to eradicate the disease in contaminated regions. Attempts are being made since the 1930s to develop potent vaccines against FMD. The history of vaccination against FMD has documented various types of vaccines including inactivated viruses and empty capsids, as well as attenuated and recently developed recombinant vaccines. Although the available inactivated virus vaccines effectively prevent FMD, they have several limitations such as expensiveness, short shelf life, and short-lived protection. Therefore, it is essential to provide other types of vaccine. To reach this goal, researchers used various platforms including bacterial hosts, yeast expression system, and mammalian cell culture, as well as microalgae and higher plants to produce recombinant vaccines against FMDV. Green plants offer numerous benefits including low cost, correctly folded recombinant, and improved glycosylation patterns. This study aimed to provide a review of the current status and recent progress in the field of producing effective vaccines against FMDV entailing empty capsid, attenuated vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of each type are described, and the biotechnological improvements of the production of anti-FMD vaccines in plant systems are discussed with prominent examples, thereby confirming the feasibility of plant species as effective bioreactors for the production of recombinant vaccines. To the best of our knowledge, traditional approaches are still the preferred methods to protect livestock against FMD. Modern approaches such as recombinant vaccine production are quite promising. However, they have to pass research and development phase and further trials before they can be registered and launched onto the relevant market.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

Les vaccins contre la fièvre aphteuse (FMD): une approche biotechnologique Les vaccins contre la fièvre aphteuse (FMD): une approche biotechnologique

Abstract [French]

La fièvre aphteuse (FA) est une maladie virale contagieuse des bovins et des ovins. Cette maladie entraîne annuellement des pertes économiques énormes pour les unités productrices de viande et de lait. Cette maladie est répandue dans diverses régions d'Asie, d'Afrique et d'Amérique du Sud. Le virus de la fièvre aphteuse (VFA) appartenant au genre Aphthovirus est à l’origine de cette infection. La vaccination est une approche efficace pour réduire les effets nocifs de la fièvre aphteuse et éradiquer la maladie des régions contaminées. Depuis les années 1930, le développement de vaccins efficaces contre cette maladie fut l’objet de nombreuses études. La longue histoire de la lutte contre la fièvre aphteuse a été rythmée par divers types de vaccins produits à partir de virus inactivés, de capsides vides, de virus atténués et de vaccins recombinants plus récemment mis au point. Les vaccins inactivés actuellement disponibles se sont avérés efficaces pour la prévention de la fièvre aphteuse, mais présentent certaines limites telles qu'un coût de production élevé, une courte durée de conservation et une courte durée d'immunité. Ces restrictions rendent le développement d'autres une confirmation et un repliement précis de l'antigène recombinant, et des modèles de glycosylation appropriés pour la production de vaccins recombinants anti-FA. Dans cet article, nous passons en revue l'état actuel et les progrès récents dans le domaine de la production de vaccins efficaces contre la fièvre aphteuse, notamment les vaccins à base de capsides vides, les vaccins vivants atténués et, plus important encore, les vaccins recombinants sous-unitaires. Les avantages et les inconvénients de chaque type de vaccin sont décrits. Les améliorations biotechnologiques de la production de vaccins anti-aphteux dans les systèmes végétaux sont développées à l’aide d’exemples frappants, confirmant ainsi la pertinence de l’utilisation des espèces végétales en tant que bioréacteurs pour la production de vaccins recombinants. Cette revue de la littérature montre plus globalement que les approches traditionnelles restent encore des méthodes de choix pour la vaccination du bétail contre la fièvre aphteuse. Les approches modernes telles que la production de vaccins recombinants sont très prometteuses, mais sont encore en phase de «recherche et développement» et doivent faire l’objet d'essais supplémentaires avant d'entrer sur le marché. Cet article se termine par une conclusion générale sur les différents types de vaccins contre la fièvre aphteuse.

Keywords [French]

  • Fièvre Aphteuse
  • Vaccins, Sous-Unité
  • Les Plantes

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