Experimental Infection of Turkeys with A Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Isolated from Broiler Chickens

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Postgraduate Student of Avian Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

Abstract

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious infection of many avian species, mainly chickens and turkeys, with a devastating impact on worldwide poultry production. The ND accounts for heavy losses in Iranian poultry flocks. There are some reports regarding the epidemiology of this infection in Iran. This study was performed to investigate the infection of turkeys with a Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from a broiler chicken flock in southwestern Iran during 2013. For the purpose of the study, 70 day-old Wishard bronze poults were allocated into two groups of control (n=25) and infected (n=45). At 32 days of age, each bird in the infected group was inoculated with 0.1 mL (50 μL per eye) of NDV-infected allantoic fluid through an ocular route and received 105 EID50 of viral inoculum. On the other hand, the birds in the control group were inoculated with phosphate buffered saline by the same route. Swab samples were taken from both groups at different time points, namely from 1 to 21 days postinoculation, and verified for NDV infection by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both groups were also examined serologically by haemagglutination inhibition test. Clinically, the infected turkeys exhibited anorexia, severe depression, sitting on the hock joint, white to greenish (sometimes bloody) diarrhea, neurological disorders, and mild respiratory problems. Out of 45 inoculated birds, 9 (20%) cases died. Based on RT-PCR, virus shedding was observed in the challenged birds 3-8 days postinoculation. The NDV was detected more in tracheal swabs (50%) than in cloacal swabs (12.5%). The infected birds showed a high seroconversion. Therefore, the NDV circulating in Iranian chicken flocks has the potential to cause a serious illness in commercial turkeys. The vaccination of turkeys, as well as biosecurity, should be considered carefully to prevent the ND outbreaks in the future.

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Article Title [French]

Infection expérimentale des dindes avec un virus virulent de la maladie de Newcastle isolé chez des poulets de chair

Abstract [French]

La maladie de Newcastle (MN) est une infection très contagieuse touchant de nombreuses espèces d'oiseaux, principalement les poulets et les dindes, avec un impact dévastateur sur la production de volaille dans le monde. La MN est responsablede lourdes pertes dans les troupeaux de volailles iraniens. Il y a quelques rapports concernant l'épidémiologie de cette infection en Iran. Cette étude a été réalisée dans le but d'analyser l'infection de dindons par le virus de la maladie de Newcastle (VMN) isolé d'un troupeau de poulets de chair dans le sud-ouest de l'Iran en 2013. Dans le cadre de cette étude, des dindes bronze Wishard âgées de 70 jours ont été réparties en deux groupes de contrôle (n = 25) et infecté (n = 45). À l'âge de 32 jours, chaque oiseau du groupe infecté a été inoculé avec 0,1 ml (50 μL par œil) de liquide allantoïque infecté par le VMN par voie oculaire et a reçu l’équivalent de 105 EID50 d'inoculum viral. Par ailleurs, les oiseaux du groupe témoin ont été inoculés avec une solution saline tamponnée au phosphate par une voie similaire. Des échantillons d’écouvillon ont été prélevés dans les deux groupes à différents moments, à savoir de 1 à 21 jours après l'inoculation, et ont été vérifiés pour l'infection par le VMN en utilisant une réaction en chaîne de transcription-polymérase inverse (RT-PCR). Les deux groupes ont également été examinés sérologiquement par un test d'inhibition de l'hémagglutination. Sur le plan clinique, les dindes infectées présentaient une anorexie, une dépression grave, une assise sur le jarret, une diarrhée blanche à verdâtre (parfois sanglante), des troubles neurologiques et de légers problèmes respiratoires. Sur les 45 oiseaux traités, 9 (20%) des cas sont morts. Sur la base de la RT-PCR, des excrétions de virus ont été observés chez les oiseaux exposés entre 3 et 8 jours après l'inoculation. Le VMN a été détecté davantage dans les écouvillons trachéaux (50%) comparé aux écouvillons cloacaux (12,5%). Les oiseaux infectés ont présenté une séroconversion élevée. Le virus de la maladie de Newcastle qui circule dans les troupeaux de poulets iraniens est susceptible de causer degraves infections chez les dindes commerciales. Par conséquent, la vaccination des dindes, ainsi que la biosécurité, doivent être sérieusement prise en compteafin de prévenir les épidémies de MN.

Keywords [French]

  • Maladie de newcastle
  • Dindons
  • Réponse immunitaire
  • Pouvoir Pathogène
  • RT-PCR
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