Prognosis of Hepatic Amyloidosis Status and Insufficiency in Snake Antivenom Producing Horses

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

1 Department of pathology, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Immunization and plasma production, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Hyperimmunization of horses with specific antigens to harvest antisera is associated with high incidence of liver amyloidosis. The histopathologic examination is the gold standard method for diagnosis of the hepatic amyloidosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the clinical manifestations and serum values of appropriate chemical constituents due to liver injury, provide the prognostic criteria for liver amyloidosis and insufficiency. it was endeavored to determine the usage duration and survival in the horses, applied for polyvalent snake antivenom products. Thirty-seven Iranian, mixed breed male horses used for snake antivenom production were recruited in this study. All of the clinical characteristics of liver disease were assessed and the appropriate serum biochemical parameters were screened between two hyperimmunization stages. The results revealed that weakness, progressive weight-loss and chronic diarrhea were the warning signs for end of the period of using a horse in snake antivenom production. However, moderate to severe colic, often, was the sign of imminent death due to acute hepatic swelling and rupture. However, Serum biochemical findings were not suitable and useful for the assessment of outcome compared with the clinical manifestations. In this study, the authors have attempted to introduce the clinical and serum biochemical findings that are useful for prediction of the liver amyloidosis and insufficiency and, to determine the usage duration and survival in these horses. Consequently, a preliminary scoring guideline for assessing the issue was suggested.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

Prévision de l'état d'Amyloidose et l'insuffisance hépatique chez les chevaux fabricants de sérum anti-venin pour serpent

Abstract [French]

Hyper immunisation des chevaux par les antigènes spécifiques afin de pouvoir produire les antisérums utilisable et exploitable est toujours accompagnée de l’émergence de sévère amyloidose hépatique chez les chevaux. L'examen histopathologique est un signe certain de l'Amyloidose hépatique. Le but de cette étude est d'évaluer la valeur diagnostique des symptômes cliniques et les résultats biochimique de sérum (qui sont utilisés dans le diagnostic des lésions et maladies du foie) en prévision de la gravité de l'insuffisance hépatique et l'Amyloidose, déterminer la durée de l’exploitation et aussi les chances de survie chez les chevaux fabricants sérum anti venin polyvalents pour serpent. Pour ce faire, dans cette étude, 37 chevaux mâles iraniens (métis) utilisés dans la production de sérum anti-venin de serpent ont été étudiés. Tous les signes vitaux et les paramètres cliniques et biochimiques de tous les chevaux entre deux tours de vaccination ont été étudiés. Les résultats ont démontré que la faiblesse, la perte du poids progressive et la diarrhée chronique sont des signes clairs de la fin de la durée de vie utile de l'exploitation des chevaux utilisés et les douleurs modérées et sévères dans le ventre indiquent la morte imminente due à un gonflement grave du foie et la déchirure de ceci. Alors que les résultats biochimiques de sérum ne sont pas aussi utiles que les signes cliniques en prévision des animaux dans l'état de charge. Dans cet article, les auteurs ont essayé de prévoir la situation de l'insuffisance hépatique et l'Amyloidose, la durée de l’exploitation et aussi les chances de survie chez les animaux utilisés tout en utilisant les signes cliniques et les résultats biochimiques de sérum. Pour ce faire, une table de guidage d’introduction (taux) a été préparée et proposée.

Keywords [French]

  • paramètres biochimiques
  • les symptômes cliniques
  • Amyloidose du foie
  • Cheval
  • hyper immunisation

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