A Study on molecular characterization of Razi Bacillus anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain in Iran

Document Type: Original Articles

Authors

Department of Veterinary Aerobic Bacteria, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute,Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Anthrax, a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, has affected humans since ancient times. For genomic characterization of Razi B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 substrain, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping method developed by Van Erth, variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR)-8 analysis proposed by Keim, and multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA)-3 introduced by Levy were employed. In the SNPs typing system, where the nucleotide content of the genome at 13 evolutionary canonical loci was collectively analyzed, the originally South African 34F2 substrain was categorized in the A.Br.001/002 subgroup. In the VNTR-8 analysis, fragments with lengths of 314, 229, 162, 580, 532, 158, and 137 bp were identified at the following loci: vrrA, vrrB1, vrrB2, vrrC1, vrrC2, CG3, and pxO1, respectively. In addition, application of Levy's MLVA-3 genotyping method revealed that the genome of this strain carried 941, 451, and 864 bp fragments at AA03, AJ03, and AA07 loci, respectively. The present findings are undoubtedly helpful in meeting the requirements set by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and World Health Organization (WHO) for anthrax vaccine manufacturers including Razi Institute. However, further similar studies are required to promote the current epidemiological knowledge of anthrax in Iran.

Keywords

Main Subjects


Article Title [French]

Caractérisation moléculaire de la souche secondaire Razi Bacillus anthracis Sterne (34F2) en Iran

Abstract [French]

L’Anthrax, une zoonose causée par le Bacillus anthracis, affecte l’homme depuis l’antiquité. Pour la caractérisation génomique de la souche secondaire « Razi B. anthracis Sterne 34F2 », une méthode de génotypage développée par Van Erth dite « polymorphisme du nucléotide simple (SNP) », l’analyse du nombre variable de séquences répétées en tandem (VNTR) proposée par Keim ainsi que l’analyse de plusieurs locus VNTR (MLVA) initiée par Levy ont été employées. Dans le système de génotypage SNPs, la composition nucléotidique du génome jusqu’à 13 locus canonique évolutif a été analysée. La souche secondaire sud africaine 34F2 a été classifiée dans le sous groupe A.Br.001/002. Dans l’analyse VNTR-8, des fragments d’une longueur de 314, 229, 162, 580, 532, 158, et 137 bp ont été respectivement identifiés dans les locus vrrA, vrrB1, vrrB2, vrrC1, vrrC2, CG3 et pxO1. De plus, l’application de la méthode de génotypage de Levy ( MLVA-3) a démontré que le génome de cette souche contient des fragments de 941, 451 et 864 b appartenant respectivement aux locus AA03, AJ03, and AA07. Ces résultats seront sans doute utiles pour satisfaire les exigences définies par l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé Animale (OEI) et l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (WHO) dans la production du vaccin de l’anthrax à l’Institut Razi (Karaj, Iran). Cependant des études complémentaires similaires seront nécessaires afin d’appuyer les connaissances épidémiologiques actuelles sur l’anthrax en Iran.

Keywords [French]

  • Iran
  • Anthrax
  • Max Sterne

Behr, M., Small, P., 1999. A historical and molecular phylogeny of BCG strains. Vaccine 17, 915-922.

Delpi, L.P., 1938. Infectious diseases of animals in Study on infectious diseases of farm animals in iran, Razi Institute, Karaj.

Feodorova, V.A., Sayapina, L.V., Corbel, M.J., Motin, V.L., 2014. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens. Emerging microbes & infections 3, e86.

Gilfoyle, D., 2006. Anthrax in South Africa: economics, experiment and the mass vaccination of animals, c. 1910–1945. Medical history 50, 465-490.

Honda, I., Seki, M., Ikeda, N., Yamamoto, S., Yano, I., Koyama, A., Toida, I., 2006. Identification of two subpopulations of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Tokyo172 substrain with different RD16 regions. Vaccine 24, 4969-4974.

Jula, G.M., Sattari, M., Banihashemi, R., Razzaz, H., Sanchouli, A., Tadayon, K., 2011. The phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus anthracis isolates from Iran. Tropical animal health and production 43, 699-704.

Keim, P., Price, L., Klevytska, A., Smith, K., Schupp, J., Okinaka, R., Jackson, P., Hugh-Jones, M., 2000. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis reveals genetic relationships within Bacillus anthracis. Journal of Bacteriology 182, 2928-2936.

Legge, T., 1905. The milroy lectures on industrial anthrax: Delivered before the royal college of physicians of london. British Medical Journal 1, 589.

Levy, H., Fisher, M., Ariel, N., Altboum, Z., Kobiler, D., 2005. Identification of strain specific markers in Bacillus anthracis by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. FEMS Microbiology Letters 244, 199-205.

Najafi Olya, Z., Tadayon, K., Ghaderi, R., 2015. A Simplified Van Erth SNP- Typing Method of Bacillus Anthracis Applicable by Traditional Thermocycler Machines. Medical Laboratory Journal 9, 97-103.

Oettinger, T., Jørgensen, M., Ladefoged, A., Hasløv, K., Andersen, P., 1999. Development of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine: review of the historical and biochemical evidence for a genealogical tree. Tubercle and lung disease 79, 243-250.

Popa, V., Manea, M., Pastrama, F., Burlacu, O., Voinovschi, E., Botus, D., Danes, M., 2009. Genetic characterization of bacillus anthracis R1190 stamatin vaccinal strain. Lucrari Stiintifice-Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole a Banatului Timisoara, Medicina Veterinara 42, 299-303.

Seyyed-Mohammadi, S., Bidhendi, S.M., Tadayon, K., Ghaderi, R., 2015. Genetic Characterization of Bacillus anthracis 17 JB strain. Iranian Journal of Microbiology 7, 168-172.

Tigertt, W.D., 1980. Anthrax. William Smith Greenfield, M.D., F.R.C.P., Professor Superintendent, the Brown Animal Sanatory Institution (1878-81). Concerning the priority due to him for the production of the first vaccine against anthrax. The Journal of hygiene 85, 415-420.

Turnbull, P.C., 1991. Anthrax vaccines: past, present and future. Vaccine 9, 533-539.

Van Ert, M.N., Easterday, W.R., Huynh, L.Y., Okinaka, R.T., Hugh-Jones, M.E., Ravel, J., 2007. Global genetic population structure of Bacillus anthracis. PloS one 2, e461.

Wang, Z., Pan, Y., Wu, J., Zhu, B., 2012. [Complete genome sequencing and sequence analysis of BCG Tice]. Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica 52, 1219-1227.

Xu, D., Li, G., Wu, L., Zhou, J., Xu, Y., 2002. PRIMEGENS: robust and efficient design of gene-specific probes for microarray analysis. Bioinformatics 18, 1432-1437.

Behr, M., Small, P., 1999. A historical and molecular phylogeny of BCG strains. Vaccine 17, 915-922.

Delpi, L.P., 1938. Infectious diseases of animals in Study on infectious diseases of farm animals in iran, Razi Institute, Karaj.

Feodorova, V.A., Sayapina, L.V., Corbel, M.J., Motin, V.L., 2014. Russian vaccines against especially dangerous bacterial pathogens. Emerg Microbes Infect 3, e86.

Gilfoyle, D., 2006. Anthrax in South Africa: economics, experiment and the mass vaccination of animals, c. 1910–1945. Medical history 50, 465-490.

Honda, I., Seki, M., Ikeda, N., Yamamoto, S., Yano, I., Koyama, A., Toida, I., 2006. Identification of two subpopulations of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Tokyo172 substrain with different RD16 regions. Vaccine 24, 4969-4974.

Jula, G.M., Sattari, M., Banihashemi, R., Razzaz, H., Sanchouli, A., Tadayon, K., 2011. The phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Bacillus anthracis isolates from Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod 43, 699-704.

Keim, P., Price, L., Klevytska, A., Smith, K., Schupp, J., Okinaka, R., Jackson, P., Hugh-Jones, M., 2000. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis reveals genetic relationships within Bacillus anthracis. Journal of Bacteriology 182, 2928-2936.

Legge, T., 1905. The milroy lectures on industrial anthrax: Delivered before the royal college of physicians of london. British Medical Journal 1, 589.

Levy, H., Fisher, M., Ariel, N., Altboum, Z., Kobiler, D., 2005. Identification of strain specific markers in Bacillus anthracis by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. FEMS Microbiology Letters 244, 199-205.

Najafi Olya, Z., Tadayon, K., Ghaderi, R., 2015. A Simplified Van Erth SNP- Typing Method of Bacillus Anthracis Applicable by Traditional Thermocycler Machines. Medical Laboratory Journal 9, 97-103.

Oettinger, T., Jørgensen, M., Ladefoged, A., Hasløv, K., Andersen, P., 1999. Development of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine: review of the historical and biochemical evidence for a genealogical tree. Tubercle and lung disease 79, 243-250.

Popa, V., Manea, M., Pastrama, F., Burlacu, O., Voinovschi, E., Botus, D., Danes, M., 2009. Genetic characterization of bacillus anthracis R1190 stamatin vaccinal strain. Lucrari Stiintifice-Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole a Banatului Timisoara, Medicina Veterinara 42, 299-303.

Seyyed-Mohammadi, S., Bidhendi, S.M., Tadayon, K., Ghaderi, R., 2015. Genetic Characterization of Bacillus anthracis 17 JB strain. Iranian Journal of Microbiology 7, 168-172.

Tigertt, W.D., 1980. Anthrax. William Smith Greenfield, M.D., F.R.C.P., Professor Superintendent, the Brown Animal Sanatory Institution (1878-81). Concerning the priority due to him for the production of the first vaccine against anthrax. Journal of Hygiene (London) 85, 415-420.

Turnbull, P.C., 1991. Anthrax vaccines: past, present and future. Vaccine 9, 533-539.

Van Ert, M.N., Easterday, W.R., Huynh, L.Y., Okinaka, R.T., Hugh-Jones, M.E., Ravel, J., 2007. Global genetic population structure of Bacillus anthracis. PLoS One 2, e461.

Wang, Z., Pan, Y., Wu, J., Zhu, B., 2012. [Complete genome sequencing and sequence analysis of BCG Tice]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 52, 1219-1227.

Xu, D., Li, G., Wu, L., Zhou, J., Xu, Y., 2002. PRIMEGENS: robust and efficient design of gene-specific probes for microarray analysis. Bioinformatics 18, 1432-1437.